B3 Ocr Gateway

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  • Created by: Bonnie
  • Created on: 08-06-14 12:23
Similarities in Plant and Animal cells
Cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane
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Only in plant cells
Chloroplasts, rigid cell wall, large vacuole (providing support)
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Respiration equation
glucose + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
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Four steps of DNA Fingerprinting
1- Isolation 2 - Fragmentation 3 - Chromotography 4 - Tagging
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What is transamination?
Amino acids changing into what is suitable (occurs in liver)
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What do enzymes reduce the need for?
High temperatures
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts, proteins
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What is a substrate?
Molecule changed in reaction
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Function of plasma?
Carries substances around the body
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Six things Plasma carries?
Carbon dioxide, hormones, red/white blood cells, antibodies, water
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What is the function of red blood cells?
Transport oxygen from lung to all cells in the body
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What are the characteristics of red blood cells?
Small, biconcave shape (large surface area for releasing/absorbing oxygen), haemoglobin (provides iron and red colour), don't have nucleus (more space for haemoglobin), and flexible (pass through capillaries)
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Function of white blood cells?
Defence against disease
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Characteristics of white blood cells?
Produces antibodies to fight microbes, produces antitoxins to neutralise toxins formed by microbes, flexible to help engulf microorganisms
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Function of arteries?
Takes blood away from heart
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Characteristics of arteries?
Contains thick layers of muscle to make them strong, walls are strong and elastic as the heart pumps at high pressure
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Function of capillaries?
Involved in the exchange of materials at the tissues
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Characteristics of capillaries?
Walls are one cell thick (increased rate of diffusion, less distance), permeable walls (diffuse)
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Function of veins?
Takes blood to the heart
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Characteristics of veins?
Lumen, valves, walls aren't thick, blood is lower pressure
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Advantages of having double circulatory system
Allows higher pressure
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Advantages of being multi cellular
Larger surface area to volume ratio, allows for cell differentiation, complex, bigger
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What is mitois?
cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
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Mitosis
1) dna in cell is replicated 2) dna cells coil into doublearmed chromosomes 3) chromosomes line up in centre, one arm of each chromosome goes onto each side of cell 4) cytoplasm divides, you get two cells
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What is Meiosis?
Four new cells with different genetic information, two divisions, gametes
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How are sperm cells adapted?
Lots of mitochondria (provide energy), acrosome in head (stores enzymes), produced in large numbers, small with tails (able to swim)
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Why do animals stop growing and plants don't?
Animals grow due to cell division, whereas plants grow due to cell enlargement
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Why are some people against stem cell research?
Each embryo is potential life, destroyed, some countries won't fund research to make new stem cell stocks
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What are auxins?
Plant hormones which control growth at the tip of the shoot and roots
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Shoots are..
Positively phototrpic and negatively geotropic
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Roots are..
Negatively phototropic and positively geotropic
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What is a mutation?
Change in DNA base sequence
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What does mutation cause?
Different protein to be made or no protein at all
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Pros and Cons of Selective Breeding
Good health, allows maximum yield, reduces number of different alleles, problems if disease occurs, more chance of genetic disorders
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What is genetic engineering?
Produce organisms with new and useful features
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Examples of genetic engineering
Vitamin A deficiency, gene for human insulin, resistance
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Moral and ethical issues of genetic engineering
Playing god, creating genetic underclass, evolutionary consequences are unknown, wrong to change organisms for human benefit
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What are clones?
Genetically identical organisms
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Benefits of cloning?
Preserve endangered species, animals may be able to produce medicines, animals could have organs suitable for transplant, lead to greater understanding of development
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Risks of cloning?
Humans may be cloned, cloned animals may not be as healthy, may have unknown consequences
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Tissue culture
1) choose plant 2) remove small amount of tissue from parent plant 3) grow tissue
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Pros and cons of tissue culture
Mass production, genetically identical, disease will spread, lack of genetic variation
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What year was DNA structure worked out?
1953
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What year did they win the nobel prize?
1962
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What is Collagen?
Structural protein
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What is insulin?
Protein hormone. Regulates sugar levels. Made in pancreas.
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What is haemoglobin?
Carrier protein. Carries oxygen from lungs to respiring cells.
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Symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C(6)H(12)O(6) +6O(2) -> 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O
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Equation for respiratory quotient
Volume CO(2) produced / Volume O(2) produced
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Why does heart rate increase during exercise?
To deliver more oxygen and glucose to muscles
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Why does breathing rate increase during exercise?
To remove extra carbon dioxide
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Word equation for anaerobic respiration
Glucose-> Lactic acid
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Why does anaerobic respiration happen?
Make up for shortfall in energy release when heart rate does not go up enough to suppy the extra oxygen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Only in plant cells

Back

Chloroplasts, rigid cell wall, large vacuole (providing support)

Card 3

Front

Respiration equation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Four steps of DNA Fingerprinting

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is transamination?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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