B3: Living and Growing

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 20-04-14 14:42
Name the key parts of an animal cell
Mitochondria, cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosomes and cell membrane
1 of 59
Name the key parts of a plant cell
Nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, cytoplasm, chloroplast
2 of 59
Name the key parts of a bacterial cell
DNA strand, plasmid, cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall
3 of 59
What happens in the mitochondria?
Most of the reactions involved with respiration
4 of 59
What happends in the cytoplasm
Most of the cell's chemical reaction take place in this medium
5 of 59
What happens in the ribosomes?
Protein synthesis
6 of 59
What purpose does the cell membrane serve?
Controlling what substances enter and leave the cell
7 of 59
What purpose does the cell wall serve?
Supports the cell, keeps its shape
8 of 59
What does the vacuole contain in plant cells?
Cell sap - water, amino acids, glucose and salts
9 of 59
Which base pairs with A (Adenine)?
T (Thymine)
10 of 59
Which base, therefore, pairs with C (Cytosine)?
G (Guanine)
11 of 59
Who did it and in what year was DNA first modelled?
Watson & Crick in 1953
12 of 59
How does DNA replicate?
It unzips, then floating nucleotides (bases) join with their complimentary base.
13 of 59
How many bases make up an amino acid?
3
14 of 59
What does mRNA do?
Copies DNA and takes it to ribosomes where protein is synthesised, however it changes Thymine to Uracil
15 of 59
How does DNA control a cell?
By controlling protein production, the protein produced dictates the cell's function
16 of 59
Name 4 functions of proteins and give examples
Carrier molecules (e.g. haemoglobin), Hormones (e.g. insulin), Structural proteins (e.g. collagen), Enzymes
17 of 59
What is the equation for calculating Q10?
Q10= rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature (temperature difference should = 10)
18 of 59
2 causes of mutation
Radiation can alter DNA, Chemicals mutagens (Classed as carcinogens if the mutation causes cancer)
19 of 59
Name 2 advantages of being mulitcellular
Increased size allows for further travel, fewer predators and different methods of acquiring nutrients. Cell differentation allowingfor more complex organisms
20 of 59
Define mitosis
When a cell reproduces itself be splitting in two to form to genetically identical cells
21 of 59
4 main stages of mitosis
1. DNA replicates 2. DNA coils to form double arm chromosome 3. Cell fibres seperate arms to opposite poles 4. cytoplasm divides
22 of 59
What is name for cells which have 2 of each chromosome
Diploid
23 of 59
Gametes are what?
Haploid
24 of 59
What is the product of meiosis?
4 genetically different cells
25 of 59
4 main stages of meiosis
1. DNA replicates and double armed chromosomes are formed 2. Chromosomes arranged into pairs 3. Pairs seperate into daughter nuclei 4. Double arm chromosomes are seperated in daughter nuclei leaving 4 genetically different cells.
26 of 59
What is the name of the cell formed by the joining of two haploids
Diploid zygote
27 of 59
Name 3 sperm cell adaptations
Tails, lots of mitochondria, acrosome at 'head'
28 of 59
Define stem cells
Undifferentiated cells
29 of 59
What's the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells
Embryonic stem cells can become any specialised cells, adult stem cells are limited
30 of 59
Name 3 methods of measuring growth
Measuring length, wet mass and dry mass
31 of 59
Define respiration
The process of releaing energy from glucose
32 of 59
Word equation for aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water ( + Energy)
33 of 59
Word equation for anaerobic respiration
Glucose -> Lactic Acid ( + Energy)
34 of 59
What is the equation for calculating repiratory quotient
RQ = amount of CO2 produced / amount of 02 used
35 of 59
What should respiratory quotient be for aerobic respiration?
0.7 - 1
36 of 59
What should respiratory quotient be for anaerobic respiration?
> 1
37 of 59
What shape are red blood cells and why are they that shape?
Biconcave, gives a large SA : V ratio
38 of 59
Name 2 other adaptations of red blood cells
No nucleus and very flexible
39 of 59
What do arteries do?
Carry blood away from the heart
40 of 59
Describe the pressure blood is under in the arteries
High pressure
41 of 59
How is the arteries structure adapted to the pressure?
Strong and elastic walls, thick walls compared to lumen
42 of 59
What do capillaries do?
Branch of from arteries to be involved in material exchange at tissues
43 of 59
How is a capillary adapted to exchange?
Permeable walls, which are only one cell thick
44 of 59
What joins together to form veins?
Capillaries
45 of 59
How are veins adapted to carry blood back to heart?
Large lumen and valves to prevent back flow
46 of 59
What happens in a double circulatory system?
First system takes deoxygenated blood to lungs, second system take oxygenated blood around body
47 of 59
What is selective breeding?
Humans choose a desirable trait and only allow organisms with that trait to reproduce over many generations that trait becomes stronger and stronger
48 of 59
Name a drawback of selective breeding and the consequences
Leads to a reduction in the gene pool, which increases likelyhood of genetic disorders
49 of 59
Describe the 5 main stages of genetic engineering
1. Desired gene is selected 2. Restriction enzymes 'cuts out' gene 3. same restriction enzyme cuts other DNA open 4. Gene is inserted into other DNA 4. organism replicates so lots of that organim has the desired gene
50 of 59
Describe 2 methods of gene therapy
Changing gene in body cells or altering gametes so offspring won't be affected
51 of 59
Why is altering gametes controversial?
May have unknown side effects, could lead to designer babies
52 of 59
Define a clone
Clones are genetically identical organisms
53 of 59
Describe the 5 main stages of cloning
1. Nucleus is removed from egg cell 2. Diploid nucleus is inserted in to egg cell 3. Cell is given electric shock to start mitosis 4. Egg cell implanted in surrogate mother 5. Clone is born
54 of 59
Benefits of cloning
Mass production of animals with desired traits, Cloned human embryos could be used for stem cells
55 of 59
Risks of cloning
Clones might not be as healthy, might have unknown consequences
56 of 59
Describe the 4 main stages of plant cloning using a tissue culture
1. Choose plant with desirable characteristics 2. Remove small amount of tissue (roots/shoots tip is best) 3. Grow tissue in in growth medium 4. When tissue produces shoots and roots it can be moved to potting compost
57 of 59
Advantages of plant cloning
You can be fairly sure of characteristics, no waste of time/money. Mass produce plants that may be hard to grow from seeds
58 of 59
Disadvantages of plant cloning
If plants suffer from disease or change in environment they all suffer, lack of genetic variation
59 of 59

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, cytoplasm, chloroplast

Back

Name the key parts of a plant cell

Card 3

Front

DNA strand, plasmid, cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Most of the reactions involved with respiration

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Most of the cell's chemical reaction take place in this medium

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Pokemon/Trainer

Report

Very good:- accurate and key information used with skill

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all B3 resources »