B3 Life Processes

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Define osmosis
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of a high water concentration to a low water concentration
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Which way do water molecules go through a partially permeable membrane when there is a more concentrated sugar solution on the right?
Both ways, however there will be a net movement to the right side as there is less water in ratio to the rest of the content
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What is tissue fluid?
This is a solution of glucose, oxygen and other stuff in water that has been squeezed out of the capillaries in order to supply the cells
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What is the osmosis experiment?
Potato cylinders are placed into different concentrations of solution, after leaving them for a while you can measure the lengths, those that have increased in size have had water drawn in, those decreased in size have had the water drawn out
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What are the different ways substances can move in the body?
Diffusion, osmosis and active transport
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How are exchange surfaces adapted to maximise effectiveness?
Thin so have a small distance to diffuse, large surface area so lots of substances can diffuse at once, exchange surfaces in animals have lots of blood vessels to get substances to move in and out quickly & gas exchange surfaces are well ventillated
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Small holes in the underside of the leaf which carbon dioxide diffuses through, also oxygen and water vapour diffuse out of the stomata
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How is the size of the stomata controlled?
By guard cells, these close the stomata if the plant is losing water faster than it is being replaced by the leaves
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How is the structure of the leaf adapted to make gas exchange efficient?
Flattened shape increases surface area to volume ratio, the guard cells change the shape of the stomata and also there is lots of air space inside the leaf which increases the area of this surface
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What is the thorax?
The top part of your body
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How is your thorax separated from your abdomen?
The diaphragm separates your body into upper and lower (thorax and abdomen)
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What happens to the air you breath?
It goes through the trachea and splits into two tubes called 'bronchi' which split into smaller tubes called bronchioles which finally end at small bags called alveoli where gas exchange occurs
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What happens to make you breath in?
The intercostal muscles and ad diaphragm contract, the thorax volume increases which decreases the pressure so air is drawn in
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What happens to make you breath out?
The intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax so the thorax volume decreases this increases the pressure so air is drawn out
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What is ventilation?
the movement of air into and out of the lungs
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How can artificial ventilators help people to breath?
These move air (often with extra oxygen) into or out of the lungs, they pump air into the lungs which expands the ribcage, when the pumping stops the ribcage relaxes and pushes the air back out of the lungs, this doesn't affect the blood flow
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How did artificial ventilators used to work?
A giant case 'iron lung' which would cover the neck to the abdomen, air would pump out which would cause low pressure so lungs would expand and air drawn in, air would then pump out and have the opposite effect. This could interfere with blood flow
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What it active transport?
The movement of particles to a high concentration from a low concentration using energy from respiration
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What are sport drinks for?
To replace water, mineral ions and sugar that has been lost through sweating and respiration during excersize
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What are the arguments against sports drinks?
The science behind the evidence has been criticised with small sample sizes, poor research and financial conflict of interest from study authors. Also, even if it works it is not necessary for people unless they are a training athlete
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What are the advantages of having sports drinks over water?
Water doesn't have adequate levels of carbohydrates or sodium, water doesn't have the flavour to drive the desire to drink BEFORE the body fluids have been lost from sweating, the sodium and carbohydrates allows more fluids to be absorbed
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What is the job of the lungs?
Transfer oxygen to the blood and remove the carbon dioxide this gas exchange occurs in the alveoli
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How are the alveoli specialised to maximise gas exchange?
Enormous surface area, a moist lining, very thin walls and a good blood supply
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How do root hair cells take in minerals?
Active transport as the concentration on minerals is usually higher in the cell than outside in the leaf so normal diffusion would not make the roots take up what it needs
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What does phloem do?
It is a tissue that transports food around a plant- it is made of columns of living cells with small holes in the end to allow stuff to flow through, they mainly transport dissolved sugars made in the leaves to growing regions or to a storage organ
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What does xylem do?
It takes water up, it is made of dead cells joined end to end with no end walls between them and a hole down the middle, they carry water and minerals from roots to the stem and leaves in the transpiration stream
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What is transpiration?
The loss of water from a plant caused by the evaporation and diffusion of water from the inside of leaves
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How does transpiration occur?
When water evaporates and diffuses out of the leaf, it creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf so more water is drawn up from the rest of the plant through the xylem vessel which in term means more water is drawn up through the root
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Why does transpiration occur?
It is a side effect of photosynthesis, they have stomata so gases can exchange easily and because there is more water inside the plant it diffuses out
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What is the heart?
A pumping organ that keeps blood flowing around the body, the walls are mainly made from muscle
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What prevents the blood flowing backwards?
The valves
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What are arteries?
These carry blood away from the heart- the artery walls are strong and elastic as they carry blood under pressure the cell walls are thick and contain thick layers of muscle to make them strong and elastic fibres to allow them to stretch and spring
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What are veins?
These carry blood to the heart- capillaries join up to form veins, the blood is at a lower pressure wo the walls don't need to be as thick, they have a large lumen to help the blood flow and contain valves to make sure they flow in the right directio
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What are capillaries?
These are involved in the exchange of materials at the tissues- arteries branch into capillaries and are very tiny, they cary the blood very close to every cell, they have permeable walls, their walls are normally only one cell thick
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What do red blood cells do?
Carry oxygen from the lungs to cells in the body, they have a biconcave shape for a large surface area and don't have a nucleus, they contain a red pigment called haemoglobin
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In the lungs what happens to the haemoglobin
It combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin and the reverse happens in body tissues
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What do white blood cells do?
They fight disease by changing shape to engulf pathogens, produce antibodies to fight pathogens as well as antitoxins to neutralise toxins produced by pathogens
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What do platelets do?
Small fragments of cells without a nucleus that help the blood clot at a wound to stop blood pouring out and pathogens getting in
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When the intercostal muscles contract, what direction do they move?
Up and Out
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When is the rate of transpiration higher?
Windy, dry and hot weather
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What happens if there is not enough water for a plant?
The plant cells become flaccid and so the plant wilts
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How can we explore transpiration?
Cobalt Chloride paper turns blue when is dry and when it meets water it turns pink, so we can see how quickly some turns pink when placed in the same plastic bag as a leaf when still attached to the plant
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What is coronary heart disease?
Coronary arteries are arteries on the outside of the heart that supply it with blood so it can carry on working, coronary heart disease is when these become blocked- often from cholesterol build up
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How can coronary heart disease be prevented?
If there is too much cholesterol in an artery, a stent (mesh) can be placed inside to keep the sides of the wall open but still allow blood to pass through easily
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What is urea?
a substance made in the liver made up from excess amino acids that travels to the kidneys where it is filtered out and is put into the urine
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What are vascular bundles?
Made up of xylem and phloem
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How can we investigate xylem cells?
Put celery into a beaker of red food dye, where we can see the red colour is where the xylem cells are.
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What is a potometer?
A piece of equipment which measures the rate of transpiration in a plant, as water is drawn up through the plant, a little bubble of water moves along so we can see the exact volume
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What is homeostasis?
The way the body tries to control substances
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What does the urine consist of?
Excess water, urea and mineral ions
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How does a kidney work?
It filters the blood at first, the water, glucose, ions and urea is transferred to the tubules, then all the glucose is transported back as well as some of the water and mineral ions. Excess water, ions and also urea remains in the tubule
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Where is the thermoregulatory centre, what does it do?
In the brain, it has temperature receptors that detects the temperature of the blood that passes through it, as well as being responsible for maintaining the right heat
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Other than the thermoregulatory system, what else detects our temperature
Nerves in the skin are connected to heat responses
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What happens when we sweat?
It cools the body because the water evaporates, carrying away heat energy so water is lost in the body, there may be less water in the urine or someone might need to drink more water
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What is the core body temperature?
The temperature around vital organs that must not fluctuate,
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Other than sweating, how else can the body prevent being to hot?
Blood vessels supplying the skin dilate so more blood flows through the capillaries which increases the amount of heat lost via radiation also the hairs lie down so that air can pass over the skin to aid evaporation
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How can the body prevent losing too much heat?
The blood vessels constrict so less blood flows through, hairs can also stand on end which traps an insulating layer of air.
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How can the body warm up?
The muscles may shiver, the contraction of the muscle requires energy from respiration which is exothermic so produces heat.
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What happens if blood sugar levels go too high?
Someone could go thirsty, hungry, have a need to urinate, have blurred vision, have dizziness or nausea
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What happens if blood sugar gets too low?
Hunger, weakness, inability to concentrate, dizziness, convulsions and loss of conciousness
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What does the pancreas produce?
Insulin or glucagen
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What does insulin do?
Allows glucose to enter cells from the blood and also to help it form glycogen which is stored in the liver or muscles
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What are the characteristics of type 1 diabetes?
The pancreas makes too little insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells and glucose cannot be stored as gylcogen
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How can diabetes be controlled?
Regular excersise, insulin injections before eating and a controlled diet
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What happens if blood sugar gets too low?
The pancreas detects this and produces glucagen which converts the glycogen to glucose in the liver
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Which way do water molecules go through a partially permeable membrane when there is a more concentrated sugar solution on the right?


Both ways, however there will be a net movement to the right side as there is less water in ratio to the rest of the content

Card 3


What is tissue fluid?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the osmosis experiment?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the different ways substances can move in the body?


Preview of the front of card 5
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