B3 Keeping Internal Conditions Constant

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 07-05-14 23:33
What is homeostasis?
The maintainance of constant internal conditions
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What are the 3 things which must be controlled by homeostasis?
1. Temperature 2. Minerals and ions 2. Water 3. Blood glucose
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What are the 2 waster products that mast be removed from the body?
1. Carbon Dioxide from respiration 2. Urea from the breakdown of amino acids in the liver.
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What is the function of the kidneys?
They are filtering organs which excrete the substances you do not want and the substance your body needs.
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A healthy kidney reabsorbs what?
1. Glucose 2. Dissolved ions 3. As much water as the body needs.
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A healthy kidney excretes what?
1.Urea 2. Excess ions 3. Excess water
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Where is urine stored?
The bladder
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The kindey has millions of micrscopic filtering units called what?
Nephrons
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If a person suffers from kidney failure how can the be kept alive?
By dialysis
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What does a patient's blood flow in between in a dialysis machine?
A partially permeable membrane
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Describe how a dialysis machine works.
1.Dialysis fluid has the same concentration of useful substances as healthy blood. 2. Useful substances such as glucose and mineral ions do not need to be reabsorbed 3. Urea diffuses out of blood into the dialysis fluid.
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Why is glucose and mineral ions not abosrbed by the dialysis machine?
Dialysis fluid contains the right about of substances of useful substances so they do not need diffuse through the membrane.
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What happens in a kidney transplant?
The diseased kidney is replaced with a healthy kindey
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Why must a donor kidney be a good 'tissue match' ?
IN order to avoid rejection from when antibodies attack antigens which are seen as 'foreign'
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What are immunosupressant drugs?
Drugs that suppress the immune response to prevent rejection
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What are antigens?
Proteins found on rhe surface of cells
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What are the advantages of kidney transplant?
1. They can lead a normal lifestyle not having to mind what they eat and drink 2. Cheaper for the NHS overall 3. D not have to go to regular dialysis appointments
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What are the disadvantages of a kidney transplant?
1. A patient's immune system will be suppressed which means they are vulnerable to infections. 2.Any operations carries risks 3. Lack of donors
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What is the specific name given to the human body temperatures?
The core body temperature
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What is the body temperature monitored by?
The thermoregulatory centre in the brain.
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How does the thermoregulatory centre detect change int temperature?
1It has receptors which detect the temperature of the blood flowing in the brain 2. Receptors on skin which send impulses to the brain
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How can we tell is one is hot?
When skin turns red due tot he increased blood flow
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How does our body cool down
Sweating cools down the body, hence why more water is lost when were are warm.
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If our core temperature rises, how does our body control our temperature?
1. Our blood vessels on the surface of our skin dialate, increasing blood flow so energy is transferred by radiation and the skin cools. 2. Sweat glands produce sweat which evaporate using heat from skin so we cool down.
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If our temperature falls, how does our body control our temperature?
1. Blood vessels on the surface of our skin constrict , decreasing blood flow and therefor less energy is radiated 2. Our muscles contract quickly which requires respiration and some energy released warms the blood.
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Why are small children most vulnerable to extreme temperatures?
They have a large area to volume ratio 1. Transfer energy through radiation quickly thus prone to dehydration 2. Low temperatures mean respiratory enzymes work slowly
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Why do old people tend to get hypothermia?
1. They do not move around alot to release energy from respiration in muscles.
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What organ in the body controls the level of glucose in our blood?
The pancreas
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What does the pancreas produce when glucose levels are too high?
Hormones called insulin.
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What does insulin do?
Causes glucose to move from the blood to the cells.
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What can happen to excess glucose?
It can be converted into glycogen which is stored in the liver
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What does it mean if a person suffers from type 1 diabetes?
The pancreas produces to little or no insulin which can lead to glucose levels increasing to high levels.
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How is type 1 diabetes managed?
1. Injections of insulin 2. Diet 3. Exercise
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What happens when glucose levels are too low?
1. Insulin causes blood glucose to fall 2. Pancreas detects low level 2. Glucagon is released 3. Glucagon changes glycogen into glucose 4 Glucose is released back into blood
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What is the function of glucagon?
Causes glycogen in the liver to turn into glucose.
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When do type 1 diabetics inject themselves with insulin?
Everdy before meals
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What are the 5 possible new methods of treating and possibly curing type 1 diabetes?
1. pancreas implants 2. transplanting pancreas cells 3. Using embryonic stem cells to produce insulin secreting cells 4. Adult stem cells from diabetics 5. Genetically engineering pancreas cells.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 3 things which must be controlled by homeostasis?

Back

1. Temperature 2. Minerals and ions 2. Water 3. Blood glucose

Card 3

Front

What are the 2 waster products that mast be removed from the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the kidneys?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

A healthy kidney reabsorbs what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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