B3 : Exchange of materials

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 06-05-14 23:07
Define Osmosis
The net movement of water molecules from an areas of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a partially permeable membrane
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Define active transport
The diffusion of particles through a partially permeable membrane against the concentration gradient.
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What does active transport require in order to work?
Energy from respiration
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When you sweat, what is lost from your body?
water and mineral ions causing you to become dehydrated.
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What is an isotonic drink?
A drink that matches the concentration of ions in the body
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Name the 2 main organs in which exchange of material occur in the human body?
1. Lungs 2. Small Intestine
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What exchange surface does the lungs have?
The gaseous exchange surface
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How are the lungs adapted to be an efficient exchange surface?
1. The lungs contains alveoli which are air sacs that increase the surface area of the lungs to volume ration 2. Thin walls for a short diffusion path 3. A good supply of blood due to the large network of capillaries which surround the alveoli
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Where are the lungs situated in the human body?
The lungs are situated inside the rib cage and above the diaphragm, which is separates the lungs form the adomen
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What happens when we breathe in?
1. The inter coastal muscles between our ribs and the diaphragm contract 2. The ribcage moves up and out 3. The volume of the thorax increases 4. The pressure of the thorax decreases as air is drawn in.
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What happens when we breathe out?
1. The inter coastal muscles between our ribs and our diaphragm relax 2. The rib cage moved down and the diaphragm becomes domed. 3. The volume of the thorax decreases 4. The pressure in the thorax increases as air is drawn out
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What is the movement of lungs called?
Ventilation
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What are 3 main reasons why people cannot get oxygen into their blood streams?
1. The alveoli is damaged which means the surface area is reduced 2 The tubes leading to the lungs are narrow which means less air can get through 3. If the person is paralysed the muscles will not work properly to pull the ribcage up and out.
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How does an 'iron lung work'
1. A paralysed patient is placed inside the metal cylinder 2. When air is drawn in, the person's chest moved up which causes them to breathe in 3. When air is pumped out, the chest moves back in causing the person to move out due ot the added pressu
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What time of pressure is an 'iron lung'?
Negative pressure
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What type of pressure is a breathing aid?
Positive pressure
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What is the purpose of a breathing aid?
Bags of air linked to masks an force air down the trachea.
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What is good about positive pressure aids?
1. They are smaller 2. Easier to manage 3. Liked to computers for control.
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what exchange surface does the small intestine have which makes absorption of solutes effective?
1. The villi line the small intestine whicha re finger like projections.
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What are the features of villi which make them effective?
1. Finger like projections increase the surface area to volume ratio to increase absorption greatly 2. The walls are thing which mans it has a short diffusion path 3. Good supply of blood due to the large network of capillaries
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How can soluble products pass through the villi?
Through active transport and diffusion
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in what feature of the leaf does gas enter and leave through?
Stomata which are controlled by guard cells.
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What are the gases which diffuse through the stomata and what are their uses?
1. Oxygen is needed for respiration and is a waste produce of photosynthesis 2. Carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis and is the waste product of respitation
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What process occurs which causes water vapour to diffuse out of the stomata?
Evapoiration
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How are plants adapted for efficient exchange of gas and minerals?
1. leaves are flat and very thin for a short diffusion path 2. Leaves contain air sacs which increase the surface area to volume area of the leaf 3. Roots have root hair cells which increase the surface area to volume ratio
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What can stomata do when plants are losing more water than they take from the roots?
1. guard cells can close the stomata to prevent the plant form wilting.
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What is the movement of water through a plant called?
Transpiration stream
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What happens when the rate of evapouration is greater than the water uptake by the leaves?
The plant could become dehyddrated
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In what conditions is evapouration more rapid in?
Hot, dry, windy and bright conditions
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How does wilting prevent water loss?
Leaves collapse and hang down which reduces the surface area.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define active transport

Back

The diffusion of particles through a partially permeable membrane against the concentration gradient.

Card 3

Front

What does active transport require in order to work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When you sweat, what is lost from your body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an isotonic drink?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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