B3

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What is a species?
A group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring.
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How does adaptations affect species?
They make individuals of a species more likely to survive and go on to produce fertile offspring. It is then more likely the whole species continues to exist.
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How is a cactus adapted to the hot dry desert conditions?
It has a rounded shape (small surface area compared to volume, reduces water loss), thick waxy layer (reduced water loss), thick stem (store water), shallow extensive roots (water absorbed quickly over a large area).
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How is a fish adapted to the aquatic conditions?
Gills (extract oxygen from water), tail fins with a larger surface area (propel through water), streamlined bodies ( move through water with little resistance).
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How is variation caused?
Genetic (mutations), outside factors (radiation/chemicals) and mistakes (genes are copied in cell division).
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Describe natural selection
Individuals compete for limited resources - some survive.Some varieties have a better chance of survival and the characteristic that helps them survive is passed on. 'Best' features are naturally selected and species is more adapted to environment.
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Describe selective breeding
Humans deliberately choose which feature they want to appear in the next generation and breed from animals that have it. May promote features that don't aid survival eg. cows that produce most milk
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Describe the process of evolution
Groups of organisms become isolated from each other so they can't interbreed. Factors combine to make the two groups of organisms so different they are two different species.
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What evidence is there for evolution?
Fossil records (shows species getting more complex) and DNA (use similarities and differences).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does adaptations affect species?

Back

They make individuals of a species more likely to survive and go on to produce fertile offspring. It is then more likely the whole species continues to exist.

Card 3

Front

How is a cactus adapted to the hot dry desert conditions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is a fish adapted to the aquatic conditions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is variation caused?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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