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a section of DNA that codes for a particular protein
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a messenger between the DNA and the ribosome, carries code between the two
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used to carry messages around the body Ex) insulin is a hormone released into the blood by pancreas to regulate blood sugar level
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speed up the useful chemical reactions in the body, every biological reaction has its own designs specifically for it
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Gene mutation
changes to genes, it might stop the production of protein the gene normally codes for, or it might mean a different protein is produced instead
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process of releasing energy from glucose, controlled by enzymes
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aerobic respiration
when theres plenty of oxygen, respiration we mostly use
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anaerobic respiration
vigorous exercise and your body cent supply enough oxygen to your muscles
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Lactic acid
build up in the muscles which gets painful and makes your muscles fatigued
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when a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
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different versions of a gene
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gametes are formed in the ovaries and testes, cell division that creates sex cells (gametes)
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only have one copy for each chromosome
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body cells of mammals, body cells have two copies of each chromosome in its nucleus
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male and female gametes combine to form a diploid cell (zygote)
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are formed by meiosis in the ovaries and testes, sex cells
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at fertilization male and female gametes combine to form a diploid cell, characteristics are controlled by combination of genes on its chromosomes
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in red blood cells, carries oxygen from lungs to your respiring cells, a carrier protein
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base pairs
pairs of DNA bases: A pairs with T and C pairs with G
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complementary base pair
pairing between DNA bases; A with T adn C with G, their shapes fit together; they are complementry
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base triplet
sequence of three DNA bases in a gene, that specifies a particular amino acid's position in the protein
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structures in the cytoplasm of a cell, where proteins are assembled
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carrier protein
protein such as haemoglobin that carries something
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a substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction
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enzymes are specific they act on only one substrate
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state of protein when its shape has altered mand it can no longer carrry out its function
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happens of its own accord with no outside influence
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oxygen debt
lack of oxygen in muscle cells, oxygen is needed to oxidise lactic acid in in the muscle to carbon dioxide and water
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asexual reproduction
reproduction without gametes/sex cells, using mitosis
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fluid that makes up blood along with blood cells. mainly water dissolved chemicals such as enzymes, glucose, amino acids, horomones, and wastes
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blood vessel wth a thick muscular wall that carries blood under high blood pressure from the heart to the organs
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blood vessel with a thin wall and large lumen that carries blood at low pressure from the organs back to the heart
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small blood vessel with a very thin wall and narrow diameter, allow exchange of substance between cells and blood
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space in a blood vessel through which blood vessels
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top chambers of the heart that recieive blood from veins
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lower chanbers of the heart that contract and force blood out of the heart into the arteries
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stem cell
undifferntiated cell that can divide by mitosis and is capable of differntiating into any of the cell types found in that organism
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areas within plants where the cells can divide
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selective breeding
breedin gprogramme that uses artificial selection, in which oranisms with desired characteristics are chosen and interbred top produce offspring with even more desirable characteristics
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genetic engineering
faster way of genetically modifying organisms without going through a selective breeding process
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genetically modified
organisms produced by genetic engineering
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gene therapy
changing a persons's gene in an attempt to cure disorders
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chemical that promotes plant growth when added to the soil
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chemical used in agriculture to kill pests of crops or livestock- insecticides, herbicides
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organism that is a direct genetic copy of another organism
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nuclear transfer clone
technique used to clone an organism from genetic taken from a differentiated adult cell of another organism, dolly the sheep
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aseptic technique
technique used for microbiological work and fro tissue culture, ensures everything is clean so unwanted microorganisms grow
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tissue culture
method used to grow lots of genetically identical plants form the meristem tissue of one plant
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a messenger between the DNA and the ribosome, carries code between the two

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Gene mutation


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