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What is osmosis?
The movement of water through a patially permable membrane for a region of high concentration to low concentration.
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What happens if the water concentration out side the cell is dilute?
Water will move in to the cell as there is more water outisde.
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What are the three ways a substance can move?
Osmosis, diffusion and active transport.
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In which way does oxygen leave the plant?
Diffusion out of the stomata
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What is the thorax? Name one organ found in the thorax?
The thorax is the top part of the body. The lungs.
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How does the oxygen get into your bloood after your mouth?
Down the thrachea, into the brochi, into the bronchiles ands then into the alveloi
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What is the other word for breathing in?
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What happens to your body when you breathe out?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax, this causes the thorax volume to decrease, air pressure to increase then air rushes out.
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Name two artifical ventilators that help people breathe.
Ventilators and iron lung.
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Where does gaseous exchance take place in the lungs?
The alveoli.
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Name three things that alveoli have to maximise diffusion.
Large surface area to volume ratio,moist lining, thin walls and good blood supply.
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Why does the small intestine contain lots of villi?
Increase the surface area so food is absorbed more quickly into the blood.
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What is active transport? Where would it be used?
When a substance is absorbed againts the concentration gradient. Used in the root hair cells.
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What is one disadvantage of active transport?
It requires enery.
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Where would active transport be used in a human?
When there is a low concentration of nutrients in the gut avtive transport will allow it to go againts the gradient using a protein carrier.
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What is the fuction of the phloem and the xylem?
Phloem is to transport food and xylem is to transport water.
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What is transpiration?
Water loss from the plants through the leaves causes more water to be drawn up through the roots.
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Where does the pulminary artery go?
From the heart to the lungs.
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Where does the vena cava enter the heart?
Right atrium.
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What happens to blood after is enters the heart through the vena cava?
enters at the right atrium, pumps down the the right ventricle and then up out the pulmanory artery.
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Why are the walls of a artery thick and elastic?
Under high blood pressure.
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Capillaries eventually join up to form what?
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What 4 things are in the blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, platlets and plamsa.
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What is the function of the blood plasma?
Carries everthing such as blood cells, CO2, urea, hormones.
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What is artifical blood and when can it be used?
It is saline and can be used to top up the volume of the blood in an emergincy.
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What are stents?
Keep arteries open when there is too much fatty deposits.
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What are the 6 things that need to be regulated in homestasis?
Temperature, blood glucose, ion content, water content, carbon dioxide and urea.
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What happens to your blood cells whe you're too hot or too cold?
vasodilation (when hot) and vasoconstirction (when cold).
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What is vasoconstricion?
Blood vessels contrtict when you're cold so less blood flow neae your skin surface so less heat is lost.
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What are the three main roles of the kidney?
removal of urea, removal of ions and adjusting water content.
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How is urea made?
protiens cant be stored so need to be changed into carbs and fats. this reaction occours in the liver and produces urea.
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Why is having excess ions bad?
Upsets osmosis so cells get too little or too much water.
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What three ways is water lost?
urine, sweat and breathing out.
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What are the three types of sports drink?
Hypotonic (Less water sugar ions) hypertonic (more) and isotonic (the same).
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What is ultrafiltration?
A high pressure is built up which squeezes water, urea, ions and sugar out og the blood into bownan's capsule.
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What is reobsorbtion?
As a liquid flows along the nephron, use substances are re absorbed.
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where will urea go after the kidney?
ureter and then urint to the bladder.
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What two ways are people treated for kidney failure?
dialysis filter and transplant.
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Gvie two advantages and disadvantages of transplant.
Tajes time to find a matching donor/body can reject it/have to take immunosuppresants.
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Give two disadvantages of dialysis.
3-4 times a week at the hospital and may cause blood clots.
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What happens if there is too much glucose or too little glucose in the blood?
too much then insulin is added which turns glucose into glycagen and too little glycagon is added which tunrs glycagen into glucose.
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What is type one diabetes?
The pancreas produces little or no insulin, the means someones blood glucose can get too high.
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How do we treat type 1 diabetes?
inject insulin depending on their exercise and diet or a pacreas transplant.
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Why is increasing demands for raw materials bad?
We are demanding higher living standards and using up raw materials quicker than they are being restored.
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What is the green house effect?
C02 and methane are acting as insulating layers which traps in the heat radiation from the sun.
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What is one effect of the green house effect?
Causing global warming so ice caps are melting.
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What 5 things can lock up co2
Oceans, lakes, ponds, green plants and peat bogs.
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What are the 4 main problems with deforestation?
More methane in the atmosphere, more co2 in the atmosphere, less co2 take in and less biodiversity.
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Why would there be less biodiversity from deforestation?
Habitats are removed or destroyed.
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why would there be more methane after deforestation?
Rice or cattle is grown and rice is grown in good conditions for decomposers.
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What are peat bogs?
Peat is when plants start to decay but not fully because there isnt enough o2, when they are drained for the land the peat will decay and release the co2.
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What is fermentation?
Fermentation is when bacteria of yeast break down sugars by anaerobic respiration.
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How is biogas produced?
Biogas is made by anaerobic fermentation of waste material in a generator where micro-organisms respire.
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What are the two bio gas generators and name one difference.
Batch generator and continuous, batch generators need to be constantly refilled and are better on small scales.
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What are the 4 factors you take into consideration when designing a generator?
cost, reliability, convenience and placement.
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Give four positives of biogas.
Carbon neutral, no acid rain and methane isn't released when biogas is burnt and waste materials are cheap.
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What are the three ways of increasing foods efficiency?
Less steps in food chain, animals kept in certain conditions and new food (mycoprotein).
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How is Mycoprotein made?
fungus is grown in a fermenter using glucose syrup as food and oxygen + nitrogen are added and mycoprotein is harvested.
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What are fishing quotas?
limited amount of fish can be caught in that area to stop overfishing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What happens if the water concentration out side the cell is dilute?


Water will move in to the cell as there is more water outisde.

Card 3


What are the three ways a substance can move?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In which way does oxygen leave the plant?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the thorax? Name one organ found in the thorax?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Izzy Mason


I have been looking for this kind of thing for ages thanks sooooo much :) 

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