B3

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What is osmosis?
Movement of water from a high concentration to low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
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What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion?
Diffusion is movement of ANY particles and doesn't require a membrane of any kind, osmosis is specifically water and needs a semi-permeable membrane. [osmosis is a TYPE OF DIFFUSION]
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If a solution is dilute, what concentration of water does it have in it?
High concentration of water. [plus low concentration of the solute]
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If a solution is concentrated, what concentration of water does it have in it?
Low concentration of water. [plus high concentration of the solute]
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How do the concentrations inside and outside of a cell affect the water movement by osmosis?
If there is a concentration gradient between the outside and inside of a cell, water will move by osmosis depending on what way the gradient goes.
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What could happen if the solution OUTSIDE of the cell is more dilute than the cell contents?
Water will move into the cell due to the concentration gradient. This makes the cell swell, which could cause it to burst.
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What could happen if the solution INSIDE of the cell is more dilute than outside of the cell?
Water will move out of the cell due to the concentration gradient. This causes the cell to shrink and shrivel. This means it can no longer survive.
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When water moves into plant cells by osmosis, what happens?
The vacuole swells up and presses the cytoplasm against the cell walls. Build up of pressure until no more water can enter cell. Makes cell hard&rigid.
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What effect do rigid cells, created by osmosis, have on the whole plant?
The swollen state makes the leaves and stem rigid&firm.
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Why is osmosis important in all living organisms?
Essential in animals as need homeostasis to ensure cells don't burst/shrivel. Essential in plants to keep rigid and support tissues.
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What is active transport?
When substances are moved AGAINST a concentration gradient [from low to high]
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What does active transport require in order to carry out?
It needs energy to move the substances; this is provided from [cellular] respiration.
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What happens as a result of active transport?
Cells can absorb ions from very dilute solutions. Also enables them to move substances from one place to another via cell membranes.
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What other rate of reaction is the rate of active transport linked to?
Rate of respiration. [because the energy need is provided by this.
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What feature do cells that carry out lots of active transport need lots of?
Mitochondria - to supply the energy demand.
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Give two examples of where active transport is required.
Animals - sugars is absorbed out of gut and kidney tubules into blood AGAINST CONC' GRADIENT. Plants - mineral ions in soil are usually in dilute solutions. Can absorb against conc' gradient.
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What three substances do most soft drinks contain?
Water, sugar and mineral ions.
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When you exercise, what happens in your body?
Release energy by respiration - makes muscles contract - THIS USES SUGAR. Sweating to keep body temp' stable - contains water&mineral ions. Affects concentration of body fluids.
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What happens if body fluids become concentrated?
Water leaves cell via osmosis due to conc' gradient. Cells = dehydrated.
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When the mineral ion/water balance of body is disturbed due to not being replaced, what happens to your cells and what can you do to prevent this?
Your cells don't work as efficiently as usual. To keep exercising at best, need to replace sugar used in resp' and water/mineral ions lost in sweat.
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How are sports drinks different from normal soft drinks?
Mainly water, has sugar, but has more mineral ions that normal soft drinks. [also has flavourings and colourings to make it nicer to drink]
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What do experts say is better after exercise than sports drinks?
If the sports activity is under an hour, plain water is enough. Milk-based drinks are most efficient at replacing water/sugar/mineral ions.
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What does dilute orange squash have to do with sports drinks?
Dilute orange squash with a pinch of salt replaces water, sugar and mineral ions. Creates a 'sports' drinks as effective as commercial products.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion?

Back

Diffusion is movement of ANY particles and doesn't require a membrane of any kind, osmosis is specifically water and needs a semi-permeable membrane. [osmosis is a TYPE OF DIFFUSION]

Card 3

Front

If a solution is dilute, what concentration of water does it have in it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

If a solution is concentrated, what concentration of water does it have in it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do the concentrations inside and outside of a cell affect the water movement by osmosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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