B3

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How are ions lost in the body?
Some ions are lost through the skin as sweat and the kidneys remove excess mineral ions as urine.
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Why is deforestation taking place and what effects does it have?
Reasons: timber, land for agriculture, roads and buildings, land for biofuels Effects: reduction in biodiversity, increase in carbon dioxide content of atmosphere, global warming, climate change, rising sea levels, changes in migration patterns
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How can fish stocks be preserved?
Regulate net size, impose fishing quotas, bans on discarding fish
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using an artificial heart?
Advantages: useful where no other treatment available or extends lifespan Disadvantages: low success rate, device has limited lifespan or battery will need charging, discomfort from heart / battery, risk of infection
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What happens to the body cells if the kidneys produce little urine?
Cells swell /over hydrated/ damaged.
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Explain how oxygen is moved from the lungs to the tissues.
In lungs oxygen diffuses (from the alveoli) into the blood in the red blood cell, oxygen combines with haemoglobin, forming oxyhaemoglobin. In tissues oxyhaemoglobin splits up, releasing oxygen, which diffuses into the cells.
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How are capillaries adapted for exchanging oxygen with the tissues?
Thin walls for short diffusion path. Narrow, so have a large surface area to volume ratio.
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Describe the processes that occur in the biogas generator.
Faeces / manure / plants, broken down by fermentation /anaerobic respiration, into methane.
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Describe the processes that prevent glucose being excreted in the urine.
Glucose is filtered out of the blood. The filtered glucose is then taken back into the blood/reabsorbed by active transport.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a kidney transplant over dialysis?
Adv: no build-up of toxins, prevent high blood pressure, no restricted diet, dialysis- infection and blood may not clot due to anti-clotting drugs, transplant cheaper. Dis: rejection, immuno-suppressant drugs cause infections, risky operation.
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What is meant by biodiversity?
The range of species in a habitat.
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Why is it important to conserve biodiversity?
Conserved organisms may have future uses.
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How might global warming affect species on a worldwide scale?
Change in migration patterns, changes in distribution / loss of habitat.
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What is the difference between iron lungs and modern respirators?
In iron lung atmospheric / outside pressure forces air into lungs. In modern respirator air forced (mechanically) into lungs.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the modern ventilator rather than an iron lung?
Adv: more freedom of movement for patient, more portable, does not affect blood flow in lower body Dis: (tube in trachea) uncomfortable, more difficult to eat/talk.
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Explain why roots need to use two different methods to absorb water ions.
Solution in soil is more dilute (than in root cells) so water moves from the dilute to the more concentrated region. Concentration of ions in soil less (than that in root cells) so energy needed to move ions or ions go against concentration gradient.
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What is meant by the transpiration stream?
Movement of water from roots / root hairs (up stem) via xylem to the leaves. (water) evaporates via stomata.
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Describe the role of blood vessels in the control of body temperature.
If body temperature too high capillaries dilate / widen. If body temperature is too low capillaries constrict / narrow. So more / less blood flows through skin (capillaries) so more / less heat is lost (from the skin by radiation).
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Suggest an explanation for an athlete overheating in humid conditions.
Sweat released cannot evaporate because of high humidity / all the water vapour in the air so less heat lost / less cooling because it is evaporation of sweat that cools the body.
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Card 2

Front

Why is deforestation taking place and what effects does it have?

Back

Reasons: timber, land for agriculture, roads and buildings, land for biofuels Effects: reduction in biodiversity, increase in carbon dioxide content of atmosphere, global warming, climate change, rising sea levels, changes in migration patterns

Card 3

Front

How can fish stocks be preserved?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using an artificial heart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to the body cells if the kidneys produce little urine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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