B3.2 Transport systems in humans and animals

HideShow resource information
What is the name of the vessel that transports water in plants? Which direction do they go?
The Xylem tubes transport water upwards only.
1 of 37
What is the name of the vessel that transports food in plants? Which direction do they go?
The Phloem tubes transport food up and down the plant.
2 of 37
What is Transpiration?
Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant.
3 of 37
Where does a plant get it's water and food from?
Water is drawn up from the soil by the root hair cells and its food is made by photosynthesis in the leaf.
4 of 37
What are Phloem tubes made up of?
Phloem tubes are made up of columns of living cells with small holes in the ends to allow substances to flow through.
5 of 37
What are Xylem tubes made up of?
Xylem tubes are made up of dead cells joined end to end with no walls between them and a hole running through.
6 of 37
How is transpiration caused?
Transpiration is caused by the evaporation and diffusion of water from the leaves.
7 of 37
What does transpiration cause?
Transpiration causes a slight shortage of water in the leaves so more water has to be drawn up through the xylem from the roots.
8 of 37
Where can water escape from?
Some water is lost through the stomata.
9 of 37
What does it mean to have a double circulatory system?
A double circulatory system is one with two circuits one pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs the other pumps oxygenated blood to your organs and muscles.
10 of 37
What is the order of components that deoxygenated blood flows through in the heart?
Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle then Pulmonary Artery (to the lungs).
11 of 37
What is the order of components that oxygenated blood flows through in the heart?
Pulmonary Vein, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle then Aorta (to your muscles and organs).
12 of 37
Why does the left side of your heart appear to be larger?
This is the side of the heart that pumps the oxygenated blood so it is pumping a higher pressure therefore appearing larger.
13 of 37
Which side of your heart has the deoxygenated blood running through it?
The right side.
14 of 37
Which side of your heart has the oxygenated blood running through it?
The left side.
15 of 37
How does the blood flow around the heart?
Blood flows into the two atria which contract pushing blood into the ventricles. Then he ventricles contract forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta where it is transported around the body.
16 of 37
What are the three blood vessels?
Arteries, Capillaries and Veins
17 of 37
What do arteries do? How are they adapted?
Arteries transport oxygenated blood which is pumped at a high pressure away from the heart. They have strong walls containing thick layers of muscle elastic to withstand this pressure. The lumen is small in comparison to the walls.
18 of 37
What do veins do? How are they adapted?
Veins carry blood towards the heart at a much lower pressure than arteries so their lumen is much bigger to aid blood flow and their walls much thinner than an artery. Veins also have valves to prevent back flow.
19 of 37
What do capillaries do?
Arteries branch into capillaries which food and oxygen, and take away waste gases like carbon dioxide. They travel to individual cells.
20 of 37
How are capillaries adapted?
Capillaries are tiny vessels with walls only one cell thick so they can carry blood close to individual cells. They have permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out, and they have a nucleus.
21 of 37
What are the four components of blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
22 of 37
What does plasma do? List the things it carries (7)
Plasma is the liquid that carries everything in the blood including: Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, nutrients (glucose & amino acids), carbon dioxide, urea, hormones and antibodies & antitoxins.
23 of 37
What do white blood cells do? How are they adapted?
White blood cells defend against disease they can change shape to engulf pathogens, contain a nucleus and they can produce antibodies and antitoxins.
24 of 37
What do red blood cells do? How are they adapted?
Red blood cells carry oxygen so they contain lots of haemoglobin, don't have a nucleus to have more space for oxygen and have a curved shape to increase surface area.
25 of 37
What do platelets do?
Platelets are fragments of cells that thicken the blood and cause clots. A lack of platelets can cause excessive bleeding (no scabbing) and excessive bruising.
26 of 37
When might someone need artificial blood or a transfusion?
After they have lost a lot of blood.
27 of 37
What is artificial blood?
Artificial blood is a blood substitute (e.g. salt solution). It's safe, keeps people alive and gives them enough time to produce more red blood cells.
28 of 37
What is a transfusion?
A blood transfusion is when the patient receives donor blood to keep the patient alive.
29 of 37
What his better blood transfusions or artificial blood?
Ideally artificial blood would replace the function of red blood cells so there is no need for a transfusion however they often come with side effects so a transfusion is more reliable.
30 of 37
What is coronary artery disease?
A disease that mean the arteries get clogged with fatty deposits which makes the arteries more narrow restricting blood flow.
31 of 37
What is a treatment for clogged arteries?
Stents are often used to keep arteries open.
32 of 37
What is a stent? How do they work?
A stent is a steel or alloy metal tube that is inserted into an artery to keep them open so blood can pass through. They lowere the risk of heart attacks.
33 of 37
What are the disadvantages of a stent?
Over time the artery can become narrower as stents can irritate causing scar tissue to grow. The paitent also has to take drugs to prevent blood clotting on the stent.
34 of 37
What are artificial heart parts? When are they used?
Artificial heart parts are mechanical devices used to pump blood if paitents heart fails.
35 of 37
What are the advantages of artificial hearts? (2)
They're less likely to be rejected by someones immune system as a donor heart as they are made from plastic or metal. They can save someones life.
36 of 37
What are the disadvantages of an artificial heart?
Surgery to fit an artificial can lead to bleeding and infection. They dont work like natural ones (they can wear out and they need electric motors). Blood doesn't flow through artificial hearts as smoothly so can cause blood clots, patient takes drug
37 of 37

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the name of the vessel that transports food in plants? Which direction do they go?

Back

The Phloem tubes transport food up and down the plant.

Card 3

Front

What is Transpiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where does a plant get it's water and food from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are Phloem tubes made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Transport systems in humans and animals resources »