B3.2

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Large organisms need a transport system to move materials around the body. Describe the human transport system.
The circulatory system consisting of blood vessels (arteries away, veins, capillaries), the heart + blood.
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What is the heart?
A muscular organ that pumps blood around the body. The right pump forces deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it picks up O2 and loses CO2. After returning to the heart, the deoxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body by the left pump.
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Describe the four chambers in the heart. Describe the upper and lower chambers of the heart.
The atria receive blood from the vena cava on the right + pulmonary vein on the left. Atria contract to move blood into the lower chambers-ventricles. Ventricles contract to force blood into the pulmonary artery from the right side + into the aorta o
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Points to remember about the heart (valves, coronary heart etc.) -
Veins-->atria-->ventricles-->arteries. Valves in the heart prevent the blood from flowing in the wrong direction (backflow). Heart muscle is supplied with oxygenated blood via the coronary arteries. Action of 2 sides of heart results double circulat
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Describe arteries and veins.
Arteries: Carry blood away from the heart + have thick walls containing muscle + elastic tissue. Veins have thinner walls then arteries + often have valves to prevent backflow of blood.
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Describe capillaries
Capillaries are narrow, thin walled vessels + carry the blood through the organs + allow the exchange of substances with all the living cells in the body.
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Why is it important that blood vessels are not blocked or too narrow?
As blood will not flow efficiently + the organs will be deprived of nutrients + oxygen. Stents can be inserted to keep blood vessels open (esp. useful when coronary arteries are narrowed due to fatty deposits, cutting off the blood supply to the hear
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What are the repercussions of having leaky valves and how can this be helped?
Leaky valves could result in backflow/blood flowing in the wrong direction. Artificial/animal valves can be inserted in the heart to replace damaged valves.
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What is blood?
Tissue. Plasma (fluid) contains red + white blood cells + platelets. Blood plasma transports: CO2 from the organs to the lungs, soluble products of digestion from the small intestine to other organs + urea from the liver to kidneys where urines made.
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Describe red blood cells.
Biconcave disks with no nucleus. Contain red pigment haemoglobin. Use their haemoglobin which combines to form oxyhaemoglobin in the lungs. Carry the O2 to all organs where oxyhaeoglobin splits in haemoglobin + oxygen.
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Describe white blood cells (a) and platelets (b).
(a) have a nucleus + are part of the immune system (defence system against micro-organisms). (b) are small fragments of cells, do not have a nucleus + help blood to clot at the site of the wound.
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What is done with blood from blood donors?
Can be separated into cells + plasma. The plasma can be given to patients in a transfusion to increase blood volume. Donated blood must be refrigerated. Some blood products can be frozen.
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What are the advantages of artificial blood?
Doesn’t contain cells so blood matching isn’t necessary. Blood such as PFCs (perfluorocarbons) don’t need to be refrigerated.
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What are the advantages of artificial blood?
Expensive + doesn’t carry as much O2 as whole blood. Some types are insoluble in water + so don’t mix well with blood. Some artificial bloods cause unpleasant side-effects.
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Patients who suffer heart failure may need a new heart. What is being developed as a result of a lack heart donors?
Artificial hearts to keep the patients alive. Pros: They don’t need to match the person’s tissue + there is no need for immunosuppressant drugs. Cons: problems with blood clotting, long stays in hospitals + expense.
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What are names of the two transport tissues in flowering plants?
Xylem tissue transports water + mineral ions from roots to stem, leaves + flowers. Phloem tissue caries dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plants, including the growing regions + storage organs.
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What is the transpiration stream in plants?
The movement of water from roots through the xylem and out of the leaves.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the heart?

Back

A muscular organ that pumps blood around the body. The right pump forces deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it picks up O2 and loses CO2. After returning to the heart, the deoxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body by the left pump.

Card 3

Front

Describe the four chambers in the heart. Describe the upper and lower chambers of the heart.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Points to remember about the heart (valves, coronary heart etc.) -

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe arteries and veins.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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