B3 Topic 2

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What is innate behaviour?
Inherited behaviour, animals can respond the right way to a stimulus even though they've never done it before. For example newborn animals know to suckle from their mothers - it's an instict
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What is habituation?
Learned behaviour. Animals learn from experience to do something, like learning that a certain stimulus is not a threat to them.
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What is classic conditioning?
Classical conditioning happens when an animal learns passively (without actually trying)
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How did Ivan Pavlov classically condition dogs?
He rang a bell just before each time dogs were given food and after a while he noticed that even if he rang the bell and there was no food the dogs would salivate still.
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What is operant conditioning?
Where an animal learns actively to associate an action with a reward or punishment
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What did Burrhus Skinner see in pigeons and rats?
He trained rats and pigeons to obtain a food reward using a small cage that he invented (Skinner box).The animal had to choose a button to press and when they pressed a particular one food would appear. Eventually they knew which button to pick
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3 examples of operantly trained animals
Guide dogs to stop at the roadside and wait for a command, sniffer dogs to retrieve drugs and police horses to ignore smoke at riots
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Why do animals need to communicate?
To keep a group together, warn off predators, babies can tell parents what the need, predators in packs can coordinate their attacks
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What animals communicate with sound?
Whales and dolphins communicate over long distances and bird calls are used to attract mates and declare territory
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What are the chemicals to communicate called?
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What animals use chemicals to communicate?
Dogs pee to mark boundaries of their territory and in moths chemicals can be used as sexual attractants
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Examples of animals that use visual signals to communicate
Honey bees perform 'waggle dance' to tell others they've found food, humans use facial expressions and different courtship behavious such as dancing
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What did Tinburgen study?
Innate behaviour in gulls, found chicks peck at adults with red spots more over any other colour to ask for food
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What did Lorenz study?
Imprinting in ducks and geese, form attachments to the first things they see
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What did Fossey and Goodall study?
Fossey studied gorillas and Goodall studied chimpanzees and found that they are both social animals that help one another
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How would you investigate woodlice behaviour using a choice chamber?
Make each section a different environment (one dark and wet, dark and dry, light and wet etc) Put woodlice in the wait to see which are they like best
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How do animals attract mates?
Pheromones, songs, courtship displays such as giving gifts or dancing, some males even fight eachother to win over females
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What species are usually monogamous (have one partner)?
Usually birds, its pretty rare in other species and they will have more than one mate throughout their liftime
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What are three ways parents look after their young?
Protection, feeding and teaching skills
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How do parents protect their young?
They fend of predators or build nests
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Why do parents look after their young?
So they have a better chance of survival and passing on their genes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is habituation?


Learned behaviour. Animals learn from experience to do something, like learning that a certain stimulus is not a threat to them.

Card 3


What is classic conditioning?


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Card 4


How did Ivan Pavlov classically condition dogs?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is operant conditioning?


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