B3 - New genes for old

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What is selective breeding?
Artificially breeding two organisms together to get desired traits
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What could happen as a result of selective breeding?
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What is inbreeding?
Where health problems are caused by breeding two closely related individuals
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What does inbreeding reduce?
The variety of alleles in the population (gene pool).
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What can that lead to?
-An increased risk of harmful recessive characteristics showing up in offspring -A reduction in variation, so that populations cannot adapt to change so easily
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What is genetic engineering?
The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material
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What is an advantage of genetic engineering?
Organisms with desired features can be produced very quickly
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What is a risk of genetic engineering?
The inserted genes may have unexpected harmful side effects
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What is an example of an organism that has been made using genetic engineering?
Genetically engineered bacteria have been made that produce human insulin
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What are ethical issues involved in genetic engineering?
-Some people are worried about possible long-term effects e.g. that genetically engineered plants or animals will disturb natural ecosystems -Other people think that it is morally wrong, whatever the intention
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What are the four steps to carry out genetic engineering?
1. The desired characteristics are selected 2. The genes responsible are identified and removed (isolation) 3. The genes are inserted into the other organisms 4. The organisms are allowed to reproduce (replicate)
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What is gene therapy?
The process of using genetic engineering to change a person's genes and cure certain disorders.
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What could gene therapy involve?
Body cells or gametes
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Why are changing the genes in gametes more controversial?
Sometimes it is difficult to decide which genes parents should be allowed to change. It could lead to 'designer babies'.
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What could happen as a result of selective breeding?



Card 3


What is inbreeding?


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What does inbreeding reduce?


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What can that lead to?


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