B3 - Living and Growing

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  • Created by: asha.root
  • Created on: 20-05-16 21:54
Describe how chromosomes are made of DNA
Chromosomes are long molecules of coiled DNA, the DNA is a double helix and is made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a made of a small molecule called a base; A and T, C and G. This is called complementary base-pairing.
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How does DNA replicate itself?
DNA double helix unzips to form two single strands, new nucleotides then join on using complementary base-pairing.
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Describe how each individual protein is different
each different protein has its own number and order of amino acids. The order of the THREE bases determines the order of the amino acids, this then allows it to code for a unique protein.
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How does mRNA carry the code to the ribosomes?
To make proteins, ribosomes use the code in the DNA. DNA is found in the nucleus and can't move out as it is too big. Therefore mRNA carries the code from the DNA to the ribosome.
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What is Q10 and what is the equation?
The Q10 shows how much the rate changes when the temperature is raised by 10 degrees.
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Describe the Lock and Key mechanism
This is when the substrate has to fit into the active site. If the substrate does not fit the active site's shape, then the reaction will not work.
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What affect does temperature have on enzymes?
If it gets too HOT, enzyme loses shape; active site does not fit substrate. Enzyme has now DENATURED. If it's too COLD, there is a lower collision rate as the enzyme doesn't have much energy.
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What affect does pH have on enzymes?
If the pH is too high or too low, the active site changes shape and denatures.
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What is a Mutation and what are the effects?
A Mutation is a change in the DNA base sequence. If this does occur in the gene it could stop the production of the protein the gene normally codes for and could potentially mean a different protein is made instead.
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What are the benefits of being multicellular?
You are able to be bigger and travel further, allows for cell differentiation (has different types of cells for different jobs), they can be more complex (specialised organs).
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What is the process of Mitosis?
Mitosis makes new cells for growth and repair. The DNA in the cell is replicated and turns into double-armed chromosomes. These line up at the centre of the cell and are then attracted to opposite poles. Cytoplasm divides and you get two new cells.
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What is the process of Meiosis?
Meiosis creates gametes (sex cells). The DNA is replicated and forms double-armed chromosomes. They then get themselves into pairs and split up - the chromosomes in each pair move to opposite poles. On the second division, each chromosome splits in
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Describe what a haploid and a diploid is
A diploid is a cell that has two copies of each chromosome in its nucleus (one from mum, one from dad). But gametes are haploid cells as they only have one copy of each chromosome, so when the sperm and egg combines it forms a diploid.
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What is a zygote?
A zygote is the diploid cell formed by two gametes after fertilisation.
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How are sperms adapted to their functions?
They are small and have long tails - so they can swim to the egg. Have lots of mitochondria - to provide energy for the long distant swim. Have an acrosome - releases the enzymes they need to digest the membrane of an egg cell.
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What are stem cells?
An undifferentiated cell that can develop into different types of cells, tissues and organs depending on what instructions they are given.
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Why are some people against stem cell research?
Some people feel that human embryos shouldn't be used for experiments since each one is a potential human life. However they usually test the unwanted embryos.
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What are the two different ways in which you can measure growth?
Wet mass --> weigh the plant or animal. OR Dry mass --> dry out the organism before weighing it.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Wet mass to monitor growth?
It is very easy to measure. Although wet mass is very changeable, for example a plant will be heavier if its recently rained.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Dry mass to monitor growth?
An advantage is that it is not affected by the amount of water in the organism or how much it has eaten. However you have to kill the organism to work it out.
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What is respiration and what are the two types?
Respiration is the process of releasing energy from glucose. The two types are Aerobic (oxygen is present) and Anaerobic (absence of oxygen).
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What is the equation for Aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water
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What is the equation for Anaerobic respriation?
Glucose-->Lactic Acid --> Energy
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What is the Respiratory Quotient and what is the equation?
RQ can tell you whether someone is respiring aerobically or anaerobically. If the RQ value is greater than 1 - anaerobic.
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Name 3 ways in which a red blood cell is adapted to transporting oxygen from the lungs to all cells in the body
1) Red blood cells have large surface area (biconcave shape)=so it can absorb and release oxygen 2)Don't have a nucleus = frees space for more oxygen 3)Very flexible = pass through tiny capillaries
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What are the three blood vessels and what do they do?
Arteries - carry oxygenated blood away from heart Veins - carry deoxygenated blood towards heart Capillaries - involved in the exchange of materials at tissues
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Name features of Arteries
High pressured blood and walls are strong, elastic and thick
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Name features of Veins
Low pressured blood, walls are not thick and they also have valves to ensure the blood flows in the correct direction
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What is the process of Selective Breeding?
1) Select the one with the best characteristics 2) Breed them with each other 3) Select the best of the offspring and breed 4) Continue process for several generations (desirable trait will get stronger)
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What are the issues with Selective breeding?
It reduces the gene pool - the number of different alleles in a a population. This is because they breed from only the best organisms - inbreeding. Inbreeding can cause health problems and new diseases appear.
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What is Genetic Engineering and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
This is when genes are moved from one organism to another. This means you can produce organisms with new and useful features very quickly. However there may be unexpected harmful effects.
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Describe the important stages of Genetic Engineering
1)The gene with the desirable characteristic is selected 2)This is 'cut' from the DNA and isolated 3)Useful gene is inserted into DNA of another organism 4)Organism replicates producing similar organisms
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Card 2

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How does DNA replicate itself?

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DNA double helix unzips to form two single strands, new nucleotides then join on using complementary base-pairing.

Card 3

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Describe how each individual protein is different

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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How does mRNA carry the code to the ribosomes?

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Card 5

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What is Q10 and what is the equation?

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