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When does menstruation occur?
day 4-7
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When does ovulation occur?
day 14
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Menstrual cycle
FSH produced by pituitary gland, stimulates folicle to mature. Stimulates oestrogen, rebuilds user wall, stimulates surge in LH, triggers ovulation, corpus luteum secretes progesterone, this maintains uterus lining, progesterone inhibits FSH and LH
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What triggers menstruation?
a drop in oestrogen and progesterone
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The egg
large cytoplasm that provides nutrients, haploid nucleus that contains one set of DNA, membrane changes after fertilisation to block sperm entry
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The sperm
acrosome that contains enzymes to digest the egg, haploid nucleus, mitochondria for energy, tail for swimming
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Infertility- egg donation
eggs taken from another woman, IVF used to fertilise with male sperm, inserted into woman. Some women react badly to hormones
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egg cells fertilised with sperm in dish. 2 inserted into uterus. can lead to birth problems
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Surrogate mothers
fertilised egg placed in another woman's uterus. problems handing over child
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given to woman to help ovaries produce eggs. Increases risk of multiples and early birth
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found on X chromosome
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Edward Jenner
noticed milkmaids didn't get smallpox. rubbed pox from cowpox blister on boy- he got ill but not badly. rubbed smallpox blister on boy and he didn't get small pox
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harmless pathogen with antigens injected into body. Antigens trigger immune response, antibodies are produced. Antigens trigger production of memory lymphocytes
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Advantages and disadvantages of vaccines
+ child can become immune, reduced risk of disease, unvaccinated individuals unlikely to get disease. - swelling, allergic reaction
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Memory lymphocytes
primary response- takes long time for correct antibodies to be produced. Secondary response- antibodies produced quickly because lymphocytes remember the correct one needed
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Monoclonal antibodies
inject antigens/pathoen into mouse, mouse produced lymphocytes, B lymphocyte taken from mouse and inserted into hybridoma(cancer cell) this divides to make many antibodies
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Uses of monoclonal antiobodies- pregnancy testing
dipstick in urine, HCG ( pregnancy hormone) binds to antibodies and causes colour change
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Locating blood clots and cancer
make antibodies radioactive so they fit on cancer cell. Look at the radiation and high radiation shows where the cancer is
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targeting radiotherapy treatment
drugs attached to antibodies, delivers drugs to the specific area without damaging other cells
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Exponential growth
when the growth rate of a population is proportional to the current value of the population
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Aseptic techniques
prevent growth of bacteria, keep microorganisms away from food
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Louis Pasteur
noticed that culture in a swan necked flask didn't go off. saw the bacteria grew in the neck not in the culture.
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conditions affecting bacteria growth
blue- lots of oxygen. white then colourless- little oxygen. quicker the color change= better conditions
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Plant chemical defences
Lupin leaves- produce poisonous chemicals called alkaloids. Potatoes- produce chemicals that kill potato blight fungus. Foxgloves- produce digoxin which stops animals hearts ( used in small dose to treat heart disorders) Quinine- malaria.
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from willow tree to treat pain and fever
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yearly rhythm used by plants in response to the changing day length. Controls when plants germinate, grow and flower
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Circadian rhythms
daily biological rhythm over a 24 hour period. For example the hormone melatonin makes us sleep- change in time zone causes jet lag
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Courtship behaviour
shows off an animals reproductive quality
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Mating strategies
mate for life ( swans) Mate for a breeding season ( robins) Mate with the dominant male ( deer, lions)
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Why do female mammals care for their young?
To increase survival chances, which increases the chance that their genes will be passed on
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Why is parental care a successful evolutionary strategy?
Incerased chance of offspring surviving so increased chance of genes being passed on
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Innate behaviour
an automatic response to a stimuli- increases the chance of survival
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found that baby gulls peck at red spot on mums beak. Made cardboard heads and found that gulls pecked at red spot the most
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noticed that baby chicks follow their mother and imprint on the first thing they see
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Learned behaviour- habituation
when an animal learns to switch off the gene that causes a response to a stimuli
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Classical conditioning
when an animal learns to respond to a new stimulus using the same response as another stimuli ( pavlov's dogs)
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Operant conditioning
when an animal learns that a particular behaviour causes something good to happen or something bad not to happen
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Animal communication
keeps the group together, warns each other of predators
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Sound communication
Dolphins and walked use low frequency sound to warn each other. Birds call to declare territory, warn of predators and attract a mate
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Chemical communication
Pheromones are released by the female moth and are detected by male moths
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visual communication
gestures, facial expression. Dogs roll on their back to show submission
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Ethologists- Fossey
studied social behaviour in gorillas. Found out that they worked in groups and were not violent
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Found out that chimps use tools and fight in groups
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Plant communication using chemicals
plants have brightly coloured chemicals that attract insects. They also produce chemicals. Plants produced brightly coloured fruit that attracts animals. Animals eat it and pass it out, the seeds then start to grow
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Plant communication with other plants
plants send signals to other plants. For example the Acacia tree produces chemicals to deter herbivores. The leaves produce ethene which diffuses to other trees to warn them to produce the chemicals
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Co-evoloution- plants and insects
plants with flowers that attract insects are more likely to survive and be pollinated. Insects that can find plants get more food so are more likely to survive. As one species change so does the other and they change together over time
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Co-evolution- plants and animals
plant species in Australia have poisonous leaves. Kangaroos can eat these leaves. Where there are no kangaroos the plants don't make the poison as it uses a lot of energy
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Human evolution
Ardipithecus ramidus- 4.4 million years old. Austrolopithecus afarensis ( lucy)- 3.2 million years ago. Leakey discovered Homo erectus and Homo habilis- about 1.6 million years old
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Homo habilis and homo erectus had tools. Tools can be dated based on the layers of rock/sediment they are found in
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mtDNA is found in the cytoplasm of the egg, mutates faster than nuclear DNA but there is a greater abundance of it. It is passed down the female line. It is less likely to have degraded over time. tDNA can be dated back to a woman in Africa
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Climate Change
Ice Age- made it easy for humans to cross from Africa to Yemen. Moved from siberia to north america over a land bridge
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the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services
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a vessel used to cultivate microorganisms to produce a large scale of biomolecules
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Conditions in fermenters
aseptic precautions- sterilising equipment to prevent microorganisms. Nutrients- source of carbs and nitrogen to feed microorganisms. Optimum temp- so the enzymes can work at a fast rate without denaturing. pH- so the enzymes work efficiently.
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Oxygen- for aerobic respiration. Agitation- produced by stirrer to mix oxygen and nutrients into the liquid
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Effects of factors on growth of yeast
pH- too alkaline or acidic, the yeast enzymes don't work. No growth and sometimes death
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Why use microorganisms for food?
rapid population growth( x2 in 20 mins) Ease of manipulation- grown in fermenters so don't take up space in fields. Production independent of climate- can be grown anywhere. Waste products- can be grown using waste products
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made of fibres called hyphae. hyphae collected and heated to remove bitter taste. pressed and dried to form fibrous substance. no stirrer as would break fibe
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Mycoprotein as a food source
no saturated fat, high protein, high fibre- slows rate of glucose absorption so reduces risk of type 2 diabetes
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Yoghurt to milk
yoghurt made from lactobacillus buglers. bacteria live on sugars in milk and convert lactose into lactic acid using anaerobic respiration. Change in pH cause milk into yoghurt
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Factoors affecting yoghurt making
type of milk/bacteria, levels of nutrients, temp and pH
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Enzyme technology- chymosin
from a calves stomach or GM. causes milk to separate in curds and whey. curds pressed to make cheese
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produced by yeast. converts sucrose into glucose and fructose which are sweeter and cheaper
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washing powders
contain enzymes that break down proteases and lipase, so remove blood and grease stains
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Recombinant DNA technology
1. DNA from human cell cut using restriction enzymes. A few unpaired bases left as sticky ends. 2. plasmid cut using same enzymes, unpaired bases left as sticky ends. 3. DNA and plasmid put together and sticky ends join up. Ligase used to link.
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Step 4 of recombinant dna tech
4. plasmids inserted into bacteria and grown in fermenter
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Transgenic plants
contain genes from another organism
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Making transgenic plants
1. gene cut and inserted into bacterium. 2. plasmid put into agrobacterium 3. leaf discs grow with new gene
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Bt toxin
Bacillus thuringiensis found in soil, produced Bt toxin when attacked. gene for toxin transferred to plants and kill insects
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Positives and negatives of Bt crops
+ less insecticide used, so less damage to environment. + hgher yields of crops as less lost to pests. - some insects have developed resistance, toxin can kill harmless pests, can spread to wild plant species
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Costs and benefits of GM
+ Flavonoids can prolong life of people with cancer. - GM seeds are more expensive, GM plants produced less food as they are unadapted to environment
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Increased food production- conventional breeding programmes
high yield plants bred, high yield offspring bred, repeated for 20 generations, new variety named and sold
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Pest management strategies
Crop rotation- to prevent build up of soil pests. pesticides and traps. environment made attractive to natural pest predators
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fuels made from living organisms. They are renewable and carbon neutral. however they take up land that could be used for food, so add to the global food crisis
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When does ovulation occur?


day 14

Card 3


Menstrual cycle


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Card 4


What triggers menstruation?


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Card 5


The egg


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