B3

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Why is a transport system needed to supply the cells of your body?
There are billions of cells and most of them are far from a direct source of food or oxygen
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What is the transport system of your body called?
The blood circulation system
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What does this system include?
The blood vessels (pipes), the heart (pump), and blood (liquid)
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Why is the circulatory system known as a double circulation?
Away from the heart
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What are the walls of your heart made up of?
Mainly muscle
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What are the coronary arteries?
The blood vessels that supply the muscles of the heart wall with oxygen and glucose
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What are the top chambers of your heart called?
Atria
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What is the vessel called that supplies blood to the right atria? Is the blood it provides oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Vena cava, deoxygenated
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Which blood vessel delivers oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart?
The pulmonary vein
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Where does the blood go when the atria contract?
The ventricles
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What stops blood flowing backwards out of the heart?
Valves
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What must happen for the blood to be forced out of the heart?
The ventricles must contract
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What artery receives blood from the left ventricle?
The aorta
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What artery receives blood from the right ventricle?
The pulmonary artery
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What blood is usually carried in veins?
Deep purple-red deoxygenated blood
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Do veins have a pulse?
No
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How do veins prevent backflow as blood moves to the heart?
Valves
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What are capillaries?
Tiny vessels linking arteries and veins
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How capillaries adapted for their purpose?
They have very thin walls to allow substances to diffuse easily into and out of the blood
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What can happen if the supply of oxygen to your heart is interrupted?
It can cause pain, a heart attack and even death
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What happens to the coronary arteries as you age?
They narrow
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What is a stent?
A metal mesh that can be places in the artery to hold it open
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What is in blood?
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
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What colour is plasma?
Yellow
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What makes blood red?
Red blood cells
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What does blood transport?
Blood cells, carbon dioxide, urea and soluble products of digestion
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Where do red blood cells pick up oxygen?
From your lungs
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What adaptations do red blood cells have to make them efficient at their job?
They are biconcave discs that gives them increased surface area to volume ratio for diffusion; they are full of haemoglobin that can carry oxygen; they do not have a nucleus to make more space for haemoglobin
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Are there more or less white blood cells than red blood cells?
Less
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What do white blood cells do in the body?
They form part of the body's defence system against harmful microorganisms
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What role do platelets have in the blood?
They are involved in helping the blood to clot at a site of a wound
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How is a scab formed?
The platelets help to produce a network of protein threads, these capture red blood cells and more platelets to form a jelly-like clot. The clot then dries and hardens to form a scab
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How can a patient be helped if they lose lots of blood?
Doctors can replace the blood they have lost by giving a blood transfusion
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What is the problem with providing blood for patients who need it?
Blood can only be stored for a limited amount of time, there is only a limited number of donors and different people have different blood groups that need to be matched
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What is the simplest way to replace blood in an emergency?
Donated plasma or saline (salt water)
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Why can PFCs get to areas of the body that blood may not be able to reach in an emergency?
They do not contain cells so can get through very narrow capillaries
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What are the disadvantages of PFCs?
They do not dissolve in water; they don't carry as much oxygen as real whole blood; they are broken down very quickly; they can cause severe side effects
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How can haemoglobin for artificial blood be obtained?
It can be taken from human or animal blood, it can be made synthetically or by genetically engineered bacteria
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Why are scientists trying to develop artificial hearts?
Some people need heart transplants but there are very few hearts to go around that are a tissue match, this means that many patients die before they can receive their new hearts
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What phloem do?
It transports sugars made in photosynthesis from the leaves to rest of the plant
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What are sugars needed for in the plant?
To make new plant cells and provide energy stores for the winter
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Why are aphids considered pests?
They feed on the sugary fluid in plant phloem and take the food the plant needs
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Are mature xylem cells living or dead?
Dead
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What happens if a complete ring of bark is eaten from a tree?
The transport in the phloem stops and the tree dies
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Why are mineral ions needed all over the plant?
For the production of proteins and other molecules within the cells
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Why is water needed all over the plant?
For photosynthesis and to hold the plant upright
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the transport system of your body called?

Back

The blood circulation system

Card 3

Front

What does this system include?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is the circulatory system known as a double circulation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the walls of your heart made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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