B2h: Sustainability

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What five reasons explain why animals become extinct.
Climate change, habitat destruction, hunting, pollution and competition.
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Name five ways of how animal endangered species can be conserved.
Creating artificial ecosystems, Captive breeding programmes, education programmes, legal protection and protection of their habitats.
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Name a way of how plant endangered species can be conserved. Explain.
Seed banks - Seeds are carefully stored so that new plants may be grown in the future.
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Why are certain whale species close to extinction?
Valuable source of raw materials e.g whale oil-was used as a fuel in the past,Whale meat can be eaten-part of the diet of some traditional communities&seen as a delicacy by some people.International agreements protect whales but difficult to enforce
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If something is sustainable resource what can you do?
Remove it from the environment without it running out.
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Give two examples of what's being done to promote sustainable development.
Fish stocks and woodland.
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How are fish stocks being maintained?
Fishing quotas have been introduced to prevent some types of fish, such as cod, from becoming extinct in certain areas. This means they'll still be around in years to come.
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How are woodlands being maintained?
To make the production of wood and paper sustainable there are laws insisting that logging companies plant new trees to replace those they've felled.
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What are the four reasons for conservation programmes? (How they benefit humans)
Maintains the future possibility that plant species might be identified for medicines, cultural purposes, protects our future food supply and keeps damage to food chains and food webs to a minimum.
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Explain why species are at risk of extinction if the number of individuals fall below a critical level
If there are only a few individual members of a species left, it'll be hard to find mates. It also means there won't be much genetic variation in a population.
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Explain why species are at risk of extinction if the number of habitats fall below a critical level
It's hard for organisms to find resources like food and shelter if there aren't enough suitable habitats to support them.
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Explain why species are at risk of extinction if there's not enough genetic variation in a population
This is the number of different alleles (forms of a gene) in a population. If genetic variation is low, then a species is less likely to be able to adapt to changes in the environment or survive the appearance of a new gene.
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What four things do you need to evaluate when given an example of a conservation programme.
Genetic variation of key species, viability of populations, available habitats and interaction between species
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What would you talk about when evaluating the genetic variation of a key species of a given conservation programme?
The species being conserved should have enough genetic variation to survive the appearance of new diseases and to cope with environmental change.
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What would you talk about when evaluating the viability of populations of a given conservation programme?
Populations should be able to reproduce - so they must contain both males and females of reproductive age. They should also be large enough to prevent related individuals having to breed together-this is called inbreeding&it reduces genetic variation
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What would you talk about when evaluating the available habitats of a given conservation programme?
There should be plenty of suitable habitats to live in. The right type of habitat is especially important if the organisms being conserved are specialists.
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What would you talk about when evaluating the interaction between species of a given conservation programme?
It is important that species interact with each other as they would in their natural habitat - e.g. predator species should be allowed to hunt prey
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Talk about he conservation programme benefit to humans: protecting the human food supply
Over fishing has greatly reduced fish stocks in the worlds oceans. Conservation programmes can ensure that future generations will have fish to eat.
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Talk about he conservation programme benefit to humans: ensuring minimal damage to the food chain
If one species becomes extinct it will affect all the organisms that feed on and are eaten by that species, so the whole food chain is affected. This means conserving one species may help others to survive.
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Talk about he conservation programme benefit to humans: providing future medicines
Many of the medicines we use today come from plants. Undiscovered plant species may contain new medicinal chemicals. If these plants are allowed to become extinct, perhaps though rainforest destruction, we could miss out on valuable medicines.
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Talk about he conservation programme benefit to humans: cultural aspects
Individual species may be important in a nation's or an area's cultural heritage - e.g. the bald eagle is being conserved in the USA as it is regarded as a national symbol.
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What are the commercial values of living whales? What are the issues?
Tourists are keen to pay to see whales in the wild, and people may also want to see captive whales in shows. However, there are ethical issues surrounding keeping whales in captivity, including the lack of freedom for a large ocean-going animal.
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List the living and dead commercial values of whales.
Alive : Tourism, Dead: Food, oil and cosmetics.
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Talk about the issue of keeping whales in captivity: Entertainment and Lack of Freedom
They don't have much space&sometimes used for entertainment.Some think it's wrong that they lose their freedom&they'd be much happier in the wild,but captive whales do increase awareness of animals and their problems.
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What are the four issues of keeping whales in captivity?
Entertainment, lack of freedom, captive breeding programmes and research.
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Talk about the issue of keeping whales in captivity: Captive Breeding Programmes
Allow whales to be bred in numbers and released back into the wild
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Talk about the issue of keeping whales in captivity: Research
Research on captive whales can help us understand their needs better to help conservation. There's still a lot we don't fully understand about whales.
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What don't we know about whales still?
Communication, they migration patterns and how they survive in very deep water.
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Talk about what the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and the member nations has done?
It has struggled 2 get nations 2 agree 2 restrict whaling.The member nations declared a stop 2 whaling,only exception being Norway.Taking a small number of whales(culling)4 scientific research is allowed&carried out by Japan,Iceland&Farce Islands
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What is it hard to do - to do with whale protection?
That countries are sticking to their agreement, and even when anyone is caught,the IWC doesn't have the authority to enforce any kind of punishment, so a lot of illegal whaling goes on.
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What is sustainable development?
Providing for the needs of an increasing population without harming the environment.
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How can education sustain fish stocks and woodland?
If people are aware of the problems they may be more likely to help - e.g. by not buying certain types of fish and only buying wood products from sustainably managed forests.
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How sustainable development help endangered species?
By considering the impacts on their habitats.
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what does sustainable development need to be?
Carefully planned and carried out all over the Earth. This means there needs to be carried out all over the Earth. This means there needs to be cooperation locally, nationally and internationally.
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What happens as human population increases?(3)
More food - so we'll need more land for farming, More energy - most comes from burning fossil fuels, so need to find an alternative energy source. Producing more waste - it's polluting the Earth.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name five ways of how animal endangered species can be conserved.

Back

Creating artificial ecosystems, Captive breeding programmes, education programmes, legal protection and protection of their habitats.

Card 3

Front

Name a way of how plant endangered species can be conserved. Explain.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are certain whale species close to extinction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

If something is sustainable resource what can you do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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