B2e: Adaptations

Our environment is constantly changing. This affects animal and plant distributions. This item develops ideas about how some plants and animals successfully adapt to suit their changing environment. 

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What are plants and animals that are adapted to their habitats able to do?
Compete for limited resources.
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Two adaptations how organisms survive in cold environments.
Anatomical methods of reducing heat loss, including insulation and surface area and behavioural adaptations, including migration and hibernation.
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Two adaptations how organisms survive in hot environments.
Behavioural and anatomical methods of increasing heat loss and behavioural methods of reducing heat gain.
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An adaptations how organisms survive in dry environments.
Behavioural, anatomical and physiological methods for coping with lack of water.
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What two things can an organism be?
A specialist or generalist.
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What is a specialist?
Organisms which are well suited to only certain habitats
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What is a generalist?
Organisms which can live in a range of habitats but can easily be out-competed
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Explain how polar bears are adapted for survival in the arctic
A white appearance as camouflage, thick layers of fat for insulation, a small surface area to volume ratio - minimise heat loss, a greasy coat that sheds water after swimming, large furry feet to distribute their load and to grip on ice.
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Explain how camels are adapted for survival for deserts
large,flat feet-spread weight on sand,thick fur on top-shade,thin fur elsewhere-allow heat loss,large SA:V ratio-allow heat loss,slit-like nostrils&2 rows of eyelashes-keep sand out,tolerate temps up to 42°C,lose little water through urination,sweat
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Explain how cacti are adapted for survival for deserts
Stems that can store water, and widespread root systems that can collect water from a large area.
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Four adaptations that make animals successful predators
Built for speed, sharp teeth and claws, camouflage to avoid being seen by prey and eyes to the front of the head to judge size and distance well (binocular vision).
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Five adaptations that help animals avoid being caught as prey
Live in groups (herds or shoals), built for speed, defences such as poison or stings, camouflage to avoid being seen by predators and eyes to the side of the head to get a wide field of view (monocular vision).
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What are extremophiles?
Extremophiles live in very extreme environments. They can survive conditions that would kill most other organisms.
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In which two conditions could extremophiles live?
very high or very low temperatures or high concentrations of salt in water.
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How is bacteria an extremophile?
certain bacteria can live in hot springs or around deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where the water can be very hot.
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How are fish extremophiles?
Fish in very cold seas have ‘antifreeze proteins’ in their blood and tissues.
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How are plants extremophiles?
Certain plants grow well in salt marshes where the salt concentration is too high for most plants.
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What does a counter current heat exchange do?
The arrangement warms the cold blood entering the rest of the body, and cools the blood entering the tail, flipper or foot. It reduces the overall loss of heat from the body.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Two adaptations how organisms survive in cold environments.

Back

Anatomical methods of reducing heat loss, including insulation and surface area and behavioural adaptations, including migration and hibernation.

Card 3

Front

Two adaptations how organisms survive in hot environments.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

An adaptations how organisms survive in dry environments.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What two things can an organism be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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