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What do animal cells contain?
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
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What do plant cells contain?
all of animal cell stuff, and cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts
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What is the nucleus?
contains genetic material that controls activities of cell
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gel like substance where chemical reactions happen, contains enzymes
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Cell membrane?
holds cell together and controls what goes in and out
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where reactions for respiration take place. respiration releases energy that cell needs
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where proteins are made in the cell
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Cell wall?
made of cellulose, supports and strengthens
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Permanent vacuole?
contains cell sap, weak solution of sugar and salts
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photosynthesis occurs, contain chlorophyll
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What does yeast contain?
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall
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What does bacteria contain?
cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall. genetic material floats in cytoplasm
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What is diffusion?
the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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How do cell membranes use diffusion?
oxygen, glucose, amino acids and water can diffuse through the cell membrane
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How are palisade leaf cells adapted for photosynthesis?
chloroplasts at top of cell, tall so a lot of SA for absorbing CO2, thin so a lot at top of leaf
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How are guard cells adapted to open and close pores?
kidney shape opens and closes stomata in leaf, go turgid when lots of water so stomata opens and gases exchanged for photosynthesis, flaccid when so water to prevent water vapour escaping, think outer walls and thick inner to open and close
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What does guard cells being sensitive to light mean?
They close at night, to save water without losing out on photosynthesis
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How are red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen?
concave shape so big SA to absorb oxygen, packed with haemoglobin to absorb, no nucleus to make more room for haemoglobin
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How are egg cells specialised for reproduction?
contains huge food reserves to feed embryo, membrane changes to stop more sperm so they get right amount of DNA
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How are sperm cells specialised for reproduction?
long tail and streamlined head, mitochondria to provide energy, enzymes in head to digest through egg cell membrane
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What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function
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How does muscular tissue work?
contracts to move whatever its attached to (moves stomach wall to churn food)
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How does glandular tissue work?
makes and secrets chemicals like enzymes and hormones (makes digestive juices)
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How does epithelial tissue work?
covers some parts of body (inside and outside of stomach)
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What is mesophyll tissue in a leaf?
where most photosynthesis occurs
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What are xylem and phloem?
transport water, mineral ions and sucrose
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What is epidermal tissue?
covers the whole plant
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What is the equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water --- sunlight + chlorophyll ----> glucose +oxygen
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What do chloroplasts do?
contains chlorophyll, which absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, oxygen produced as a by product
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What are the limiting factors for photosynthesis?
intensity of light, volume of CO2, temperature
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How can you measure the rate of photosynthesis?
an experiment, count the bubbles given off or collect the oxygen in a gas syringe
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How does light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
light provides energy needed, as light level raised, rate increases but only to certain point, beyond that it won't make any difference as either temp of co2 which is limiting
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How does carbon dioxide affect the rate of photosynthesis?
only increases rate up to a point, graph then flattens showing that co2 is no longer limiting factor. as long as light and co2 in plentiful supply then limiting factor is temp
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Why does the temperature need to be just right in photosynthesis?
if too low, enzymes work slower. if too hot, enzymes damaged
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How do you control the variables in a temperature/photosynthesis test?
use a bench lamp to control intensity of light, keep flask in water bath for constant temp
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How do you artificially create ideal conditions for farming?
greenhouse make sure temp doesn't become limiting (heater/shades and ventilation), supply artificial light at night, increase level of co2 with paraffin heater, free from pests and disease, add fertiliser
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How do plants use glucose for respiration?
use it for respiration, releases energy, enables them to convert rest of glucose into other substances
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What are 5 ways plants use glucose?
respiration, making cell walls, proteins, storage in seeds, storage as starch
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How do plants make proteins from glucose?
combine glucose with nitrate ions from soil to make amino acids, made into proteins
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How do plants store glucose as starch?
stored into roots for when photosynthesis doesn't happen, like winter. starch is insoluble so better for storage than glucose.
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What affects where an organism lives?
environmental factors such as temp, water, nutrients, light, o2 and co2
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How can you study the distribution of an organism?
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How do you use quadrats to study the distribution of small animals?
place quadrat on ground in first sample area, count all organisms, repeat, work out mean (total no of organisms / number of quadrats), repeat in second sample area. compare two means
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How do you use transects?
Mark out a line in area you want to study, collect data along line (count all organisms that touch line)
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What do you need to think about when collecting environmental data?
reliability (use a large sample size as representative of whole population), validity (control all variables in relevance to the environmental factor you're studying)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do plant cells contain?


all of animal cell stuff, and cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts

Card 3


What is the nucleus?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Cell membrane?


Preview of the front of card 5
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