B2 OCR understanding our environment

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  • Created by: Jack
  • Created on: 18-05-13 12:20
What is the process of grouping organisms called?
Classification
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What are the seven classes an organism can be put into?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order,family, genus and species
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Why is it important to classify organisms?
They can show both evolutionary and ecological relationships.
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Why use an evolutionary tree to classify organisms?
They show how close the relationship is between organisms and their common ancestors
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Why are some organisms difficult to classify?
They are constantly changing due to evolution
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How does energy flow from one species to the next?
When they are eaten the energy is transferred to the organsim that ate it
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What are the feeding levels called?
Trophic levels
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How is energy lost from a food chain?
Egestion, excretion and respiration
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how do you calculate the efficency of energy transfer?
energy used for growth (output) / energy supplied (input) x100
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What problems can occure from a food pyramid?
Some animals my be omnivores, and so they will feed at two different trophic levels
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True or false? At each trophic level as much as 90% of the energy is transferred into less useful forms?
True
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What way is Carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere?
By Photosynthesis
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How is carbon dioxide put back intot eh atmospher?
Through respiration and the burning of fossil fuels and decomposers like fungi in the soil respiring
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What are the percentages of the gasses made up in our atmosphere for Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide?
Oxygen 21% nitrogen 78% carbon dioxide 0.035%
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Is nitrogen reactive or unreactive?
Unreactive
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What do nitrifying bacteria do in the nitrogen cycle?
Convert Ammonia into Nitrates
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How can nitrogen from the air be directly turned into nitrates in the soil?
By lightning
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What do nitrogen fising bacteria do and where are they found?
They convert nitrogen in the air into ammonia or into nitrates and then convert that into amino acids to form proteins. They are also found in the soil or in the root nodules of peas and beans and clove plants.
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What is an ecological niche?
A species role in the environment
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What is a predator prey relationship?
Where the predator hunts the prey
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What are cleaner species?
It cleans species of bacteria for food and is then protected from predators. This is called mutualism
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Why do animals adapt?
To be able to survive the conditions that they live in eg polar bear in the artic
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What adaptations does a cactus have to survive the hot conditions of the desert?
Long roots to reach as much water as possible; woter stored in a fleshy stem; covered with a thick waterproof cuticle to prevent water loss; needles instead of spines to reduce surface area and therefore water loss
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What three ways can an animal adapt?
Physical Behavourial and anatomical
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how do you calculate the surface area to volume ratio?
surface area / volume= ratio
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What is a specialist adaptation?
Where organisms are suited to only one habitat
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What is a generalist adaptation?
Where an organism can survive many different types of conditions
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What is a counter current heat exchange mechanism?
Where the heat from your blood when pumped away from the heart is transferred to a vein and goes back to the heart, like in a penguin, their feet are cold as the warm blood sent to their feet loses the heat and the cold blood going away from their fe
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What is meant by the survival of the fittest?
Within any species there is variation. Organisms over produce their young and those that are best adapted to the conditions survive and the others die out. They then pass their genes on to their offspring who contain their genetic information.
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What can occur if species continue to change their character over millions of years?
It can lead to evolution
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Who came up with the theory of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
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Why didnt many people believe darwin when he first produced his theory of natural slection?
He didnt have the evidence as he didnt have the technology to examine their DNA structure. Also many people were creationists and believed that god created everything and that any change was down to God.
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Give the peppered moth example of natural selection.
At the time of the industrial revolution, trees in the country side were white and so therefors, and peppered moths that were a darker colour started to die out as they were eaten. But in cities the trees were soot covered, and so they were safer
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What was Lamarcks theory of evolution?
That organisms continually tried to grow for the higher food and over time, they would acquire this feature and they would have that element. They then would pass their genes down to their offspring and so therefore they would have the genes too
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What are the effects of pollution?
It causes global warming, pollution and acid rain
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What is a carbon footprint?
The total amount of carbon given off by a person or group.
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Why is there more of a carbon footprint in developed countries than those that are undeveloped?
The more developed countries are using more fossil fuels, despitenorally having a smaller population
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What is eutrophication?
Excess fertilisers and other substances run off into lakes and rivers, wheere they cause algae to grow on the surface. This blocks out sunlight and revents plants from photosynthesising. They die and decomposers use up the oxygen in the lakekillkish
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What are indicator species used for?
To estimate levels of pollution in areas like water or even air.
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Why is it a bad idea to move an organism out of its habitat?
They arent adapted to the new surroundings and may not eat what is available, so will die
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What is sustainable development?
Taking things from the emvironment but ensuring that you have enough for future resources
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What are fishing quotas?
The amount of fish that can be taken without wiping out species
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What is spermacetti used for from a whale?
High grade machine oil?
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What part of a whale is used for tennis rackets?
The sinews
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Whats ambergris used for from a whale?
Perfumes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the seven classes an organism can be put into?

Back

Kingdom, phylum, class, order,family, genus and species

Card 3

Front

Why is it important to classify organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why use an evolutionary tree to classify organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are some organisms difficult to classify?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

lisa linsdell

A good set of flip cards when revising the environment. Appropriate for B3 of OCR 21st Century Science.

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