B2: Keeping Healthy

The four topics are:

Our bodies resistance/immunity.

Vaccines and antibodies

Heart Disease

Water balance in our bodies

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What are the symptoms of an infectious disease caused by?
Symptoms are caused by microorganisms which damage the body's cells and produce toxins.
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Why do microorganisms reproduce at a high rate inside the body?
The human body has suitable conditions for microorganisms to reproduce. These conditions include; warmth, provision of nutrients and moisture.
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How is population growth calculated when appropriate data is supplied?
The area of the triangle underneath a line graph shows population growth.
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What are white blood cells?
White blood cells are part of the immune system which destroy microorganisms either by producing antibodies or engulfing and digesting them.
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What do antibodies do?
Antibodies recognise microorganisms by the antigens on their surfaces. Different microorganisms have different antigens so specific antibodies are required to destroy them.
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Describe how immunity occures.
Once an antibody has been made to recognise a specific microorganism, memory cells have the ability to make that antibody very quickly if reinfection occurs.
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What does a vaccine do?
Vaccines provide immunity by establishing memory cells which produce antibodies very quickly upon reinfection.
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How are vaccines made safe?
Rather than introducing a live pathogen into a body a vaccine carries a safe form of the disease causing microorganism.
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Why is it necessary to vaccinate high percentages of the population?
So that epedemics caused by infectious diseases are avoided, a high percentage of the population needs to be vaccinated to avoid spread of disease between non-vaccinated people.
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Why are vaccines and drugs never risk free?
People will always suffer from varying degrees of side effects which can not be predicted or controlled from person to person.
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What causes people to react differently to vaccinations and drugs?
Genetic variation within the population.
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What do antimicrobial medicines do?
Antimicrobials are used to kill/ inhibit bacteria, fungi and viruses.
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What is the difference between an antimicrobial and an antibiotic?
Antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.
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Why are antimicrobials sometimes ineffective?
Over a period of time bacteria and fungi become resistant to antimicrobials.
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How does resistance to antimicrobials develop?
Random genetic mutations can lead to a variety of microorganism which are less effected by antimicrobials.
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How could antibiotic resistance be reduced?
Antibiotics should only be used when necessary and the course should always be completed.
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How are new drugs and vaccines tested for safety and effectiveness?
The new drugs and vaccines are first tested on cell cultures in labs and then on animals to ensure safety and effectiveness.
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What are the two types of human trial?
New drugs and vaccines are tested on healthy volunteers for safety and unhealthy patients for safety and effectiveness.
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Descibe what open-label, blind and double blind clinical trial are.
Open label: Both patient and doctor know they are using new drugs - used comparatively. Blind Trials: Doctor knows which drugs are used - patient doesn't. Double Blind: Neither patient nor doctor know which drug is being used - unbias so accurate.
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What is the importance of long-term human trials?
This type of testing makes sure that there are no harmful long term side effects and that the drug/vaccine continues to be effective.
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What potential ethical issues are present when placebos are used in human trials.
If the patient is ill and they are given placebos the drugs will have no effect on them so they won't get better.
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What is the role of the heart?
The heart is a double pump for the circlatory system.
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Why do heart cells need there own blood supply?
The heart is made up of mainly muscle cells which need oxygen from blood to function properly.
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How is the structure of veins, cappilaries and arteries related to their function?
Arteries: Thick, elastic, muscular wall to cope with high pressure and stop blood from passing through. Veins: Valves to ensure blood flows in the correct direction. Cappilaries: single cell walls allow substances to cross in and out of the blood.
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How can heart rate be measured?
Heart rate can be measured by recording pulse rate.
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What does a blood pressure measurement record?
The pressure of the blood on the walls of the artery.
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How is a blood pressure measurement given?
Blood pressure is given as two measurements; the higher value when the heart contracts and the lower value when the heart relaxes.
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Why are healthy/normal meaasurements for heart rate and pulse rate given as a range?
Normal measurements are given as a range because individuals vary.
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How do fatty deposits in the arteries supplying the heart cause 'heart-attacks'?
Fatty deposites in the arteries supplying the heart increases blood pressure (because the artery becomes smaller) which puts more strain on the heart.
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How is heart disease caused by lifestyle and genetic factors?
Lifestyle and genetic factors contribute to the risk of heart disease by increasing heart and pulse rate and the amount of fatty deposits in the arteries.
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Give examples of lifestyle factors which contribute to heart disease.
Poor diet (causing obesity/ high cholesterol), stress, smoking or misuse of drugs.
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What can reduce the risk of heart disease?
Regular moderate exercise, not smoking and reducing salt intake.
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How are differences in life style between the UK and non-industrialised countries related to the prevelance of heart disease?
Heart disease is more frequent in the UK than in non-industrialised countries because the population has a higher salt intake, unhealthier diet, does less excersise and smokes more than people in other countries. Also the UK population is older.
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How are factors which increase risk of heart disease identified.
They are identified via epidemiological and large scale genetic studies.
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Acess the risk of heart disease in the UK and suggest mitigation using relevant lifestyle and genetic data.
For example: the risk of the population is high because of high rates of obesity and smoking. To reduce risk the population should exercise more and not smoke.
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How is high blood pressure related to heart disease?
It increases the risk of heart disease.
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How does misuse of drugs effect health?
Misusing drugs such as ecstacy, cannabis, nicotine and alcohol can have an advere effect on health because it raises heart rate, blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease.
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Which systems are involved in homeostasis (the maintaining of a constant internal environment)?
The nervous and endocrinal systems.
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What do the bodies automatic control systems maintain?
A range of factors required for cells to funtion properly.
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What do these control systems have?
1) receptors to detect changes in the environment. 2) processing centers to recieve information and coordinate responses easily. 3) effectors to produce the response.
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Explain the principle of negative feedback.
Negative feedback is when one system is the opposite of another which means that processes can be reversed to maintain balance.
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What does negative feedback between the effector and the receptor do?
It reverses any changes to the bodies steady state.
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Why is a balanced water level important?
Maintaing balanced water levels ensures that the concentration of cell contents remains at the correct level for cell activity.
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How are water levels controlled?
Through gains from food, drinks, respiration and losses from urination, excretion and perspiration.
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What role do the kidneys play in homeostasis?
Kidneys balance levels of water, waste and other chemicals in the blood.
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How do kidneys balance water?
Kidneys balance water levels by producing dilute or concentrated urineas a response to concentration of blood plasma, which is affected by external temperature,exercise level and intake of fluids and salt.
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How is concentration of urine controlled?
The hormone ADH controls urine concentration and is released by the pituitory gland.
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How is ADH secretion controlled?
The hypothalamus detects salt concentration in the blood. Depending on the concentration, the pituitory gland is stimualted to produce ADH which effects the permiability of the kidney's wall which allows more or less water to be reabsorbed.
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How does alcohol effect urine concentation?
Alcohol supresses ADH secretion which results in the production of greater volumes of more dilute urine. This cause dehydration and other more long term adverse effects on health.
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How does ecstacy effect urine concentration.
Ecstacy increases the levels of ADH which causes smaller volumes of more dilute urine to be produced. This means that the bodies water levels increase which can cause adverse health effects.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why do microorganisms reproduce at a high rate inside the body?

Back

The human body has suitable conditions for microorganisms to reproduce. These conditions include; warmth, provision of nutrients and moisture.

Card 3

Front

How is population growth calculated when appropriate data is supplied?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are white blood cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do antibodies do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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