B2 Keeping Healthy

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  • Created by: Farhana
  • Created on: 09-12-12 07:46
Describe 2 ways that a microorganism can cause the symptoms of an infectious disease.
Symptoms can be caused by cell damage or by toxins(poisons)
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Explain why bacteria can reproduce quickly inside the human body.
Bacteria reproduce by making copies of themselves. They need a source of nutrients for energy and warm,moist conditions for chemical reactions > lots of places in human body
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What is the role of the immune system?
To deal with any infectious diseases that enter the body.
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Give 3 ways antibodies help get rid of an infection.
1. They mark the MO so other WBCs can engulf/digest it. 2. They bind to/neutralise viruses/toxins. 3. Some attach and kill bact, directly
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Explain why you are immune to most diseases you've already had.
Vaccinations stimulate WBCs. The body produces memory cells that recognise the antigens of the MO and stay in the blood.
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If 95% of people had a vaccination, how would this benefit the 5% that didn't?
If most people are vaccinated, the people who aren't vaccinated are unlikely to catch the disease as there's fewer people able to pass it on.
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How do vaccinations give you immunity in the future?
The dead MOs are attacked by body's antigens. Memory cells stay in blood so if same live MOs appear, can rapidly mass produce to kill.
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Why aren't vaccinations risk-free for everyone?
People can have side effects, more serious for some than others. Genetic differences mean diff reactions e.g. length of time
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What is an antimicrobial?
Antimicrobials are chemicals that inhibit the growth of MOs or kill them, without seriously damaging your own body cells.
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Why can't antibiotics be prescribed for flu?
Flus are caused by viruses. Antibiotics only kill bacteria.
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How can microorganisms become resistant to antimicrobials?
They can develop random mutations in their DNA which can change characteristics e.g. less affected by anitmicrobial
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Why should you always finish antibiotics prescribed?
If not, can increase risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria emerging.
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Why are new drugs tested on healthy people before patients?
To make sure it doesn't have any harmful side effects when body working normal. Patients likely to be vulnerable to this
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Explain importance of long-term human drug trials.
It could take a while for it to have an effect on what it was designed for and for side effects that may come after a long time.
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How has the structure of the artery adapted to its function?
It has strong, elastic walls because blood comes out of the heart at high pressure.
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How has the structure of the vein adapted to its function?
Walls not thick because blood at low pressure. Bigger lumens for easier blood flow. Valves to keep blood flowing one direction.
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How has the structure of the capillaries adapted to its function?
Permeable walls so substances can diffuse in/out. Walls one cell thick, increases rate of diffusion.
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Describe 1 way high blood pressure can cause heart disease?
HBPressure can damage inner artery. Fatty deposits can build on it = restrict blood flow. Block artery = heart attack
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Give 5 lifestyle factors that increase risk of heart disease
Poor diet, Smoking, Stress, Misuse of illegal drugs, Excessive alcohol drinking.
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Name 3 main components of your body's automatic control system.
1. Receptor 2. Effector 3. Processing centre
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What does the pituitary gland do if water content is too high?
It releases less ADH so kidneys reasorb less water
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What affect does alcohol have on ADH production?
It suppresses production of ADH > kidneys reabsorbed less water. Larger amount of more dilute urine. More water passed = dehydration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain why bacteria can reproduce quickly inside the human body.

Back

Bacteria reproduce by making copies of themselves. They need a source of nutrients for energy and warm,moist conditions for chemical reactions > lots of places in human body

Card 3

Front

What is the role of the immune system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give 3 ways antibodies help get rid of an infection.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain why you are immune to most diseases you've already had.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Swallowtail

A straightforward set of questions on immunology which cover the basics and could be used by any student studying this topic for GCSE. Team these up with a good set of notes and test your knowledge with quiz for a complete set of resources.

Einsteinanutshell

awesome!1!

Francois01

very good revision notes to make sure you understand everything and not miss out any key terms. Thank you for the revision cards and i'm hoping to get an A for my GCSE mocks this coming week!!

matteyo

thanks for the information!. i also got mocks next week so i hope to at least get As and Bs

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