B2 General Revision Cards

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When referring to photosynthesis, what would be the limiting factor at night?
The light; there is not enough light
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If a plant gets too hot, what will happen to the enzymes needed for photosynthesis
They will be damaged.
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How can you artificially create the ideal conditions for farming?
You can grow them in a greenhouse, because greenhouses help to trap the sun's heat and make sure that the temperature doesn't become limiting.
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Define enzymes.
Catalysts produced by living things.
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Why must enzymes always be at the right temperature?
Because, if it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This makes the enzyme denatured.
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Define denatured.
When an enzyme's special shape is destroyed so it won't work anymore.
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Why must enzymes always be at the right temperature?
Because, if it's too high or too low, the pH interferes with the bonds holding the enzymes together. This changes the shape and denatures the enzyme. qW
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What does amylase do?
Converts starch into sugars
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What does protease do?
Converts proteins into amino acids
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What does bile do, and where is it produced?
Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats. It is produced in the liver.
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Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid? Give 2 reasons.
-To kill bacteria -To give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work.
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What does the small intestine do?
Produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes, to complete digestion.
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What does the pancreas do?
Produces protease, amylase, and lipase enzymes. It releases these into the small intestine.
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Define respiration.
The process of releasing energy from glucose which goes on in every cell.
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What is the equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
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What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration using oxygen.
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How is the energy released by aerobic respiration useful to plants and animals? State 2 things.
2 from;-In animals, to allow the muscles to contract (which allows them to move about), and in mammals and birds. -In mammals and birds the energy is used to keep their body temperature steady. -In plants, to build sugars & nitrates into amino acids.
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What is the equation for anaerobic equation?
Glucose ---> energy + lactic acid
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What is an oxygen debt?
Where you have to 'repay' the oxygen that you didn't get to your muscles in time, because your lungs, heart and blood couldn't keep up with the demand earlier on.
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How do you 'pay off' an oxygen debt?
Keep breathing hard for a while after your stop exercising, to get more oxygen into your blood.
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What are the advantages of using enzymes in industry? Give 4 ways.
-They're specific, so they only catalyse the reaction you want them to. -Using lower temperatures and pressures means a lower cost as it saves energy. -Work for a long time - after initial cost of buying them you can reuse them. -Biodegradable
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-What are the disadvantages of using enzymes in industry? Give 4 ways.
-Some people can develop allergies to the enzymes. -Enzymes can be denatured by even a small temp. increase; the conditions they work in must be tightly controlled. -Can be expensive to produce -Contamination of the enzyme can affect the reaction.
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What is a gene?
A section of DNA. It contains the instructions to make a specific protein.
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Give 2 things DNA fingerprinting is used for, and give a brief description of both things.
-Forensic science; DNA taken from a crime scene compared with a DNA sample taken from a suspect. -Paternity testing; to see if a man is the father of a particular child.
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What are chromosomes?
Long molecules of DNA.
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What is mitosis?
When a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring.
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Fill in the missing word(s): The number of gametes is ______ of the number of chromosomes.
Half.
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Which happens in sex cells, mitosis or meiosis?
Meiosis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

If a plant gets too hot, what will happen to the enzymes needed for photosynthesis

Back

They will be damaged.

Card 3

Front

How can you artificially create the ideal conditions for farming?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define enzymes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why must enzymes always be at the right temperature?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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