B2-Enzymes

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 10-05-14 11:13
What are protein molecules made up of?
Long chains of monomers called amino acids
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What is the function of protein? What do they do?
They are hormones like insulin, catalysts in the form of enzymes, antibodies to destroy pathogens, structural components such as muscle and tendionms
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what are enzymes?
Biological catalysts that speed up the rate of reactions without being used up,
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What is the enzymes active site?
It is a special shpae in the enzyme which allows other substrates to fit ino the enzyme protein,
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What can the shape of the enzyme do to substrates? (3)
-Build large molecules from lots of smaller ones, -Change one molecule into another, -Break down large molecules into smaller ones,
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Describe how enzyme work when breaking large molecules into smaller?
The substrate fits into the active site which is specific to that substrate and fits into it like a lock and key and forms an enzyme-substrate complex which then forms the two smaller products,
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what are the two factors that effect enzyme activity?
-Temperature, -PH
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How does temperature effect enzyme rate?
As the temperature increases, so does the rate of enzyme activity as they have more energy to react-At 37oC, the optimum temperature is reached so the reaction rate is fastest but over this, rate decreases as enzymes begin to denature
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How does the pH affect enzyme rate?
The activ site affected- different parts of protein molecules are held by forces and a change in pH stops forces= active shape is lost. pH depends on the enzyme and where it works. Stomach enzymes like acidic, small intestine-alkali=fast rate reacti
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What are the three enzymes?
Amylase, lipase and protease,
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What reaction does amylase catalyst?
Starch to sugars
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Where is amylase released?
Salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine,
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What reaction does protease catalyst?
Proteins to amino acids,
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Where is protease released?
stomach, pancreas and small intestine,
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What reaction does liapse catalyst?
lipids(fats and oils) tp fatty acids and glycerol,
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Where is lipase produced?
pancreas and small intestine
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after the food molecues have been digested into soluble glucose, amio acids and fatty acids and glyecerol, what do they go?
They leave the small intesitne and pass into the bloodstream to be carried around the body to cells that need them,
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Where is bile released from and where is it stored?
Released from liver and stored in gall bladder,
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Which enzyme does bile help and why? (why can't the enzyme digest the food molecules of their own)?
Lipase- As the food molecules lipase digests don't mix with the watery liquids so stay as glubules so like oil and water making difficult for liapse to act,
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How does bile work?
It emulsifies the fats by breaking up the large drops of fat into smaller droplets which provides a larger surface area for liaspe to act on,
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How are enzymes used in the home?
as biological detergents to reomove stains from clothes,
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What enzyme(s) does the biological detergent contain and what do they break down?
Lipase and protease-Thye break down the proteins adn fats on the clothes,
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What temperatures do the bioligcal detergents need to be in? Why?
Low temperatures as the enzymes work best at lower temperatures as high temps denature them,
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In industry, what enzyme is used in baby foods and why?
Protease as they 'predigest' the food for the baby so it is easier for the baby to digest the food,
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In industry, what enzyme is used in the production of sugar/glucose syrup? why?
Amylase which converts starch to sugar. Stach is cheaper to buy than sugar to make the syrup,
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In indsutry, what enzyme is used to make fructose syrup and from what. What is fructrose syrup used in and why?
isomerese which converts glucose syrup to fructose as both contain the same amount of energy but fructrose is sweeter than glucose so smaller amounts are needed so is used in slimming foods.
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What are the advantages of enyme use?
-They don't get used up when catalysing the reactions so cheaper, -They increase the rate of the reaction, -They need low temperatures and normal pressures so require little money,
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What are the disadvantages of enzyme use?
-Denature at high temperature + extreme pH's-conditions need to be controlled= expensive, -Enzymes expensive to produce, -In industry, reactions need high temps+ high pressures to make them go fast to be efficent=expemsive+lots energy needed
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of protein? What do they do?

Back

They are hormones like insulin, catalysts in the form of enzymes, antibodies to destroy pathogens, structural components such as muscle and tendionms

Card 3

Front

what are enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the enzymes active site?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can the shape of the enzyme do to substrates? (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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