B2 Enzymes

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 06-05-14 22:35
What are protein molecules mad eout of?
Long chains of amino acids
1 of 28
What do long chains of proteins do?
They fold to produce specific shapes, and the shape of these serves a specific function
2 of 28
Name the 4 main things proteins can be?
1. Structural components (e.g tissues) 2. Hormones 3. Antibodies 4. Catalysts
3 of 28
What are chemical reactions in cells controlled by?
Biological catalysts called enzymes.
4 of 28
What is the area of a shape of an enzyme called, and what is its purpose?
Active Site allows a substrate to fit inside the area.
5 of 28
What are the 2 outcomes of a substrate fitting into an active site?
1. Broken Down 2. connected to another molecule
6 of 28
Give the 3 main functions on an enzyme
1. Building large molecules form smaller ones (e.g starch from glucose) 2. Change one molecule to another (e.g. change a sugar to another) 3. Break down large molecules into smaller ones (e.g digestive enzymes)
7 of 28
What are the 3 main factors which affect enzyme action?
1. Concentration 2. Temperature 3. pH
8 of 28
What is meant by the term denature?
When the active site of an enzyme changes shape which leads to an enzyme being ineffective.
9 of 28
What is the optimum temperature of enzymes?
37°
10 of 28
What is digestion?
The breakdown of large insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble molecles
11 of 28
What is amylase?
Catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and the small intesinte
12 of 28
Where are the amylase produced?
1. Salivary glands 2. Small Intestine 3. The Pancreas
13 of 28
What is Protease?
Catalyses the digestion of proteins to amino acids in the stomach and the small intestine
14 of 28
Where are protease produced?
1. The stomach 2. The Small Intestine 3 The Pancreas
15 of 28
What is Lipase?
Catalyses the digestion of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol
16 of 28
Where are lipase produced?
1. The Small intestine 2. The pancreas
17 of 28
In what conditions do protease work best in and how does the body work to create these conditions?
Protease in the stomach work best in acidic conditions. Glands in the stomach produce hydrochloric acid to make acidic conditions.
18 of 28
In what conditions do amylase and lipase work best in?
Amylase and protease work best in alkaline conditions as they work in the small intestine
19 of 28
How does the body create alkaline conditions for amylase and lipase?
The liver produces biles which is an alkaline. It is squirted into the small intestine wand neutralises the HCL.
20 of 28
How does bile help amylase?
It emulsifies fats into tiny droplets which increases its surface area thus speeding up digestion of fats
21 of 28
What are the advantages of protease and lipase in biological detergents?
1. Break down stains 2. Work at lower temperatures so save money
22 of 28
What are protease used for in industry?
Baby food. They predigest proteins making it digestible for babies
23 of 28
What is Isomerase?
An enzyme used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup
24 of 28
What is fructose syrup used in and why?
They are used in slimming foods because they are much sweeter than glucose therefore are only needed in small quantities.
25 of 28
What is carbohydrase?
Used to convert sugar syrup into starch syrup in foods.
26 of 28
What are the 4 advantages of using enzymes in industry?
1. effective 2. used at low temperatures 3. Used in medicine 4. Costs can be reduced
27 of 28
What are the 5 disadvantages of using enzymes in industry?
1. Allergies 2. Pollute water systems 3. Expensive to produce 4. Denature at high temperatures 5. Wool can be digested by protease.
28 of 28

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do long chains of proteins do?

Back

They fold to produce specific shapes, and the shape of these serves a specific function

Card 3

Front

Name the 4 main things proteins can be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are chemical reactions in cells controlled by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the area of a shape of an enzyme called, and what is its purpose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Enzymes and digestion resources »