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  • Created by: Biancaa
  • Created on: 08-05-14 18:56
What is a nucleus?
it controls all the activities of the cell. I contains the genes on the chromosome which carry the instructions for making new cells or new organisms.
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What is cytoplasm?
a liquid gel where most chemical reactions take place
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What is a cell membrane?
controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
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What is mitochondria?
In the cytoplasm, where energy is released during respiration
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What are ribosomes?
where protein synthesis takes place- all the proteins that are needed in the cell are made here.
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What is there in an animal cell?
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
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What is a cell wall?
made of cellulose that strengthens the cell and provides support.
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What are chloroplasts?
found in the green parts of the plant. They contain chlorophyll, which makes it green and absorbs light energy to make food photosynthesis.
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What is a permanent vacuole?
a space in the cytoplasm, filled with cell sap. This keeps the cells rigid and supports the plant.
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What is in a plant cell?
cell membrane, ribosomes, mitochondria, nucleus, cell wall, chloroplasts and a permanant vacuole.
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What does plant cells have that animal cells dont
cell wall, chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole
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Describe a bacteria
single celled, can be harmless (yoghurt, cheese), has a flagellla
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What is on the outside, cell membran or cell wall?
cell wall
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Describe a yeast
asexual budding. in anaerobic respiration it breaks down into sugar, then ethanol and carbon dioxide, then ethanol, fermentation and alcohol.
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Describe Fat cells
store excess fat for energy, can expand to 10000x its size
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Describe root hair cells
They increase the surface area for roots so more water can move into the cell. They have a large vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
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Describe photosynthesis
Takes place in the green parts of the plant (chlorophyll). Light is absorbed by the chlorophyll and the energy is used for respiration, growth and reproduction. Carbon dioxide + water= glucose +oxygen
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What happens to glucose that isn't used immediately during respiration?
It is converted to insoluble starch and is stored. This is because glucose is soluble so it'll affect the water balance, whereas starch wont because it's insoluble. More starch can be stored.
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How can you test for starch in a leaf?
Using iodine solution, a yellowy-dark brown liquid which will turn dark blue when reacting with starch. It shows that photosynthesis has taken place.
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Describe some leaf adaptations
• most leaves are broad→ big surface area for light • contain chlorophyll in the chloroplasts to absorb light energy • air spaces that allow carbon dioxide to get to the cells, and oxygen to leave them by diffusion
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What is a tissue? List some examples.
a group of cells with similar structure and function working together. Glandular tissue, epithelial tissue (for animals). For plants- epidermal tissue, mesophyll tissue, xylem and ploem.
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What does glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissue have secretory cells that produce substances like enzymes and hormones. They produce the digestive juices that break down food.
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What is the epithelial tissue?
Epithelial tissue covers the outside of your body and internal organs. It lines the inner and outer side of the organ.
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Explain mesophyll tissues
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis
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Explain xylem and ploem
transport water and dissolved mineral ions from the roots to the leaves and dissolved food from the leaves around the plant.
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What is an organ?
made up of tissues. One organ can have several tissues, all working together.
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What is a substrate, link with active site too
The substrate is the biological molecule that the enzyme will work on. 2. The enzyme grabs on to the substrate at a special area called the active site.
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What do enzymes do?
• build large molecules from lots of smaller ones • changing one molecule into another • breaking down large molecules into small ones
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Explain digesting carbohydrates
Starch is broken down into sugars in the mouth and small intestine- catalysed by amylases
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What is amylase?
enzyme produced in salivary glands so it's in the mouth, pancreas and small intestine
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explain the digestion of proteins
The breakdown of protein is catalysed by protease enzymes that are produced by the stomach, pancreas and small intestine. The breakdown of proteins into amino acids takes place in the stomach and small intestine.
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explain the digestion of fats
The lipids (fats and oils) that are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol in your small intestine. The reaction is catalysed by lipase enzymes- produced in the pancreas and small intestine.
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the importance of bile
greenish- yellow alkane liquid called bile neutralises the acidity from the stomach so its ready for the intestines.Bile also emulsifies the fats in food so large drops of fat turn into smaller droplets→ bigger surface area
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Explain aerobic respiration
glucose reacts with oxygen→ releasing energy that your cells can use. glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
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Explain anaerobic respiration
muscle cells become short of oxygen →muscles take energy from glucose → they use anaerobic respiration, which takes place without oxygen
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Why is lactic acid created in anaerobic respiration?
Glucose isn't broken down completely →lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide and wate
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Define oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen needed to break down lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water
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Define alleles
Different forms of the same gene
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Define mitosis
• two identical cells • same chromosomes and genes. • asexual • same alleles as their parent with no genetic variation
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Define meiosis
• Forms gametes (sex cells) • Meiosis is the division where chromosomes are reduced by half • The chromosomes are copied into 4 sets of chromosomes • Divides twice to form four gametes • Each gamete is different
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Explain stem cells
Stem cells are unspecialised cells which can grow into any type of cell found in the body. They’re produced when an egg and sperm fuse into a zygote, which then develops into a embryo. They divide to replace damaged cells
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Define heterozygous
different alleles for a characteristic (Dd)
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define Homozygous
two identical alleles for a characteristic (DD, dd)
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Define genotype
this describes the genetic makeup of an individual regarding a particular characteristic (Dd,dd)
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define phenotype
this describes the physical appearance of an individual regarding a particular characteristic (dimples, no dimples)
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What chromosome makes a female?
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What chromosome makes a male?
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What is cystic fibrosis?
thick mucus, inherited, 2 recessive genes, affects lungs, liver, digestive system, needs physio to remove mucus, life limiting
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What is poludactlyly
extra fingers/ toes, commonly caused by a dominant gene
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How and where are fossils formed?
• found in sedimentary rock, where most of it is deposited as sediments by moving water. • remains of organisms from many thousands/ millions of years ago • found preserved in rocks, ice and other places.
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How can fossils form?
•from the hard parts of an animal that don't decay easily •when the organism doesn't decay after death because conditions for decomposition are absent • harder parts of the organism is replaced by other minerals
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What do fossils show?
• how much organisms have changed and developed • history of life on Earth
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Why are some fossils incomplete?
•soft-bodied •not the right conditions •many are destroyed by geological activity
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What is extinction caused by?
•conditions change •climate change •new predators •new diseases •new, more successful competitors •a single catastrophic event • the evolution of new species
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Card 2


What is cytoplasm?


a liquid gel where most chemical reactions take place

Card 3


What is a cell membrane?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is mitochondria?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are ribosomes?


Preview of the front of card 5
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