B2- OCR Gateway

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  • Created by: apple87
  • Created on: 29-03-14 08:50
What is natural classification?
Based on evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms.
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What is artificial classification?
Base on appearance rather than genes, they are used to identify organisms.
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What is a species?
A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile off spring?
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What is asexual reproduction?
When an organism reproduces by making a copy of its self, doesn't fit in with the definition of species.
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What is a hybrid?
When two different species interbreed, eg horse and donkey make a mule.
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Why is the binomial system important?
Scientists from differnt species can refer to a species using the same name.
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Why are pyramids of biomass nearly always pyramid shape?
Biomass is lost at each level.
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How is energy lost?
Respiration, heat, energy, faces.
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How to work out food chain efficiency?
energy available to the next level/energy that was available to the previous levle *100
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What is a species ecological niche?
How it fits in its ecosystem, it depends on things like where the individuals live and what they feed on.
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What is interspecific competition?
Where organisms compete for resources against individuals of another species.
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What is intraspecific competition?
When species compete for resoures against individuals of the same species.
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What is a prasitic relationship?
Live off a host, they take what they need to survive, without giving anythin back. This often harms the host. Tapeworms and fleas
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What is mutualistic releationship?
Where both organisms benefit, oxpecker and Buffalo or cleaner species.
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What are specialists?
Organisms that are highly adapted to survive in a specific habitat. Giant pndas are adapted to eat just bamboo.
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What are generalists?
Organisms that are adapted to survive in a range of differnet habitats. Black rats are able to live in forests, cities, farmland.
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How to extreameophile bacteria survive?
Have enzymes that work at higher optimum temperatures around 65.
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How do oragnisms survive in extreme cold?
Have special anti freeze protiens, intefere with formation and growth of ice crystals in cels and stop cells being damaged by ice.
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What are anatomical adaptations?
Features of an organisms body that help it survive.
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How do desert plant adapt?
Rounded shape small surafce are to volume ration, thick waxy layer called a cuticle and sines instead of leaves. Store water in stems, shallow but very extensive roots.
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How do desert anaimals adapt?
Specialised kidneys that produce concentrated urine, no sweat glands, send time underground where the air had more moisture.
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What are decomposers?
Decompose protein and urea and turn them into ammonia.
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What are nitrifing bacteria?
Turn ammonia in decaying matter into nitrates.
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What are nitrogen fixing bacteria?
Turn atmspheric N2 into mitrogen compouns the plants can use.
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What are Denitriying bacteria
Turn nitrates back into N2 gas this is of no benefit to living organisms.
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Give an example of as species that can be used to measure air pollution?
Lichen-lots in little pollution
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Give an example of a species that can be used to measure water pollution?
Myfly larve- live in low pollution. Rat tailed maggot and sludge worms live in high pollution.
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What are the avantages and disadvantages indicator species?
Quick, cheap and easy, temperature can influence survival of species.
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What are the advantages and diadvantes of non living pollution indicators?
Gives reliable, numerical data that is easy to compare. exact pollutants can be identified. Require expensive equipment and needs trained workers.
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What factors can cause a species to become extinct?
The number of habitats, the number of individuals, genetic variation
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How do conservation programmes benefit humans and wildlife?
Protect the human food supply eg over fishing. Ensuring minimal damages to food chains- if one species becoms extincts other may die as well, providing future medicins, cultural aspects
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What is sustainable development?
Means providing for the needs of todays increasing population without harming the environment.
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Give examples of sustainable developmet?
Fishing quotas, logging compamies must plant new trees to replace what they cut down.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is artificial classification?


Base on appearance rather than genes, they are used to identify organisms.

Card 3


What is a species?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is asexual reproduction?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a hybrid?


Preview of the front of card 5
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