B2

What are the groups for classification in order?
Kingdom,phylum,class,order, family,genus, species
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What happens as you move down the groups?
As you get to species there are fewer organisms in the group as they share more similarities
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What are the 2 ways organisms can be classified?
An artificial system and a natural system
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How are organisms classified in an artificial system?
It is based on one or two characteristics that make identification easier
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How are organisms classed in a natural system?
It is based on evolutionary relationships and more detailed, is animals are more closely related they are likely to be in the same group
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What;s a species?
A group of organisms that cna interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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How does the binomial system work?
There are two parts to the name, first name is the genus, second is the species
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Name reasons why it is difficult to classify organisms?
Living things are at different stages of evolution and new species are being discovered all the time
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What's the problem with classifying bacteria?
They do not interbred, they reproduce asexually, so cannot be classified using the 'fertile offspring idea'
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What's the problem with classifying mules?
They are hybrids(produced when two members of a different species interbreed)they are infertile
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When classifying organisms what is it important to consider?
That similarities and differences between organisms may have different explanations
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Dolphins have similarities with fishes because they live in the same habitat what's this called?
Ecologically related
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Dolphins and bats are mammals, how are they related?
Through evolution
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What do pyramids of biomass show?
The dry mass of living material at each stage of the food chain
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How might pyramids of biomass look different to pyramids of numbers?
If the producers is very large, a small parasite lives on a large animal
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The stages in a food chain, what key word is this the definition for?
Trophic levels
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Why are pyramids of biomass difficult to construct?
Some organisms feed on organisms from different trophic levels, measuring the dry mass means removing all water, this will kill it
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What is energy used for as it passes through the food chain?
Heat(respiration), growth, egestion, excretion
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What uses the waste and what does this mean?
Decomposers, this means a new food chain is started
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What does the loos of energy along the food chain mean for the last organism?
It doesn't have much food available to it
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How is efficiency calculated?
energy used for growth/energy input
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How is carbon dioxide released into the air?
Respiration, decomposers, combustion
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How do plants use nitrogen?
They take it in as nitrates from the soil to make proteins for growth
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What is the role of decomposers?
They break down the nitrogen compounds in dead plants nad animals and return them to the soil
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What are decomposers?
They are soil bacteria and fungi which convert proteins and urea into ammonia
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What does nitrifying bacteria do?
Converts ammonia into nitrates
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What does de-nitrifying bacteria do?
Converts nitrates into nitrogen gas
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What does nitrogen fixing bacteria do?
Lives in root nodules or in soil and fix nitrogen gas, this can also happen by lightning
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What conditions affect decay?
Slower in water logged soils-less oxygen, acidic conditions slows down the rate of decay
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What will animals compete for?
If in the same species,mates but normally food
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What's an ecological niche?
The habitat an organism lives in and the role it plays within the habitat
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What's the difference between intra specific and inter specific?
Inter specific is between different species and intra specific is between the same species making it more significant as the organisms are more likely to need the same resources
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What do predator and prey relationships show?
Cyclical changes(ups and downs)
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What is the predator-prey relationship?
When there is lots of prey, more predators survive so their numbers go up, as there are more predators, prey decreases, more predators starve so their numbers drop
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Why do the predator peaks occur just after the prey peaks?
It takes a while for the increased supply of food to allow more predators to survive and reproduce
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Name some ways how organisms can be dependent on each other?
Mutualism and parasites
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Name an example of a parasite and what's a result of the relationship?
Fleas or a tapeworm which feeds in the digestive system of some animals, the result is the host suffers
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What is mutualism?
Where both organisms benefit form the relationship
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Name an example of mutualism?
Pollination between insects and flowers, cleaner fish which remove parasites form bigger fish and gain food
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What's the relationship between pea plants and certain bacteria?
Mutualism
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What are pea plants and what do they contain?
They are legumes with structures on the roots called nodules
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What do the nodules in pea plants contain?
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
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What does the relationship between bacteria and pea plants involve?
The bacteria turns nitrogen into nitrogen containing chemicals and gives some to the pea, the pea gives some sugar produced by photosynthesis to the bacteria
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Name 2 ways animals have adapted to live in the cold?
Excellent insulation to cut down heat loss(thick fur,layer of fat), quite large with small ears, small area to volume ratio
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Name a biochemical adaptation?
Anti-freeze proteins in their cells
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What's a behavioural adaptation to the cold?
Hibernation and travelling long distances to warmer areas
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Name some ways camels are adapted to their habitat?
Concentrated urine, thick eyelashes, little hair on the underside of their body,bigger surface area to volume ratio
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What's a behavioural adaptations to hot conditions?
Licking their fur, panting, seeking shade
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How are cacti adapted to their habitat?
Reduce water loss by reducing their leaves to spines, deep roots and can store water in the stem
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What are organisms that can live in hot conditions called?
Extremophiles
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What's a specialist, give an example?
An organism very well adapted to it's habitat, polar bear
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What do you call an organisms that can live in several habitats, give an example?
A generalist, rats
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What does Charles Darwins theory of natural selection say?
If animals and plants are better adapted to their environment,they and the following generations are more likely to survive
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Summarise the modern version of natural selection?
1. Within any species there is variation 2. Far more young are produced then will survive, competition for limited resources 3. Only the best adapted will survive,survival of the fittest 4.Those that survive will pass adaptations to next generation
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How may a new species be produced through natural selection?
Different organisms cant mate for a long time,organisms might live in different areas so cant mate, if each group evolve differently they might be classes as a different species
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What are the 2 ways an organisms might be prevented from mating?
Behavioural isolation and geographical isolation
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Why is natural selection difficult to study?
Because it takes thousands of year to see the effect
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What are 2 examples of natural selection?
Resistant bacteria towards antibiotics, peppered moths are dark or pale colours, in polluted areas dark moths are camouflaged so more survive
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Why did people disagree with Darwin's theory of natural selection?
People didn't think he had enough evidence to back it up, it disagreed with the story of creation
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Why is Darwin's theory more accepted?
It explains a lot of observations, it has been discussed and tested by many scientists
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What was Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory and why was it incorrect?
The law of acquired characteristics e.g giraffes need long necks to feed, this was passed on, it's incorrect because we know more about genes
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What are the 3 types of pollution? Where are they from? What is there effect?
Carbon dioxide,from burning fossil fuels,increases green house effect and global warming, CFC's,aerosols,destroy the ozone layer,sulfur dioxide,burning fossil fuels,acid rain
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The human population is growing at an ever increasing rate, what is this called?
Exponential growth
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Why is exponential growth happening?
The birth rate is exceeding the death rate
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What is a carbon footprint and what does it measure?
The amount of pollution caused per person, this measures the total greenhouse gas given off
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Name some direct ways to measure pollution?
oxygen probes that are attached to computers, that can measure oxygen levels in a pond,special chemicals can measure nitrate pollution from fertilizers
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Gives some examples of indicator species?
Mayfly larva, can only live in clean water, water louse, bloodworm, mussels can live in polluted water,lichens grow on trees and rock but only in clean air
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What are the advantages of indicator species?
Cheap,no need for equipment that can go wrong, monitors pollution levels over a long time
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What are the advantages of direct methods to measure pollution?
Give accurate results at any specific time
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What is conservation?
A way of trying to preserve animals and plants and the habitat they live in
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Why do people think conservation is important?
Protect our food supply, prevent damage to food chains,protect plants that could be used for medical uses
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Why do scientists want to kill whales to study? What do they want to find out?
To find out how whales can survive at extreme depths, and research
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What can scientists study without killing the whales?
Migration patterns and whale communication
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What are whales hunted for?
Teeth used in buttons, piano keys,whale meat, used in pet and human food etc
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Why are whales kept in captivity?
Research, captive breeding, entertainment
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What is sustainable development?
Taking enough resources from the environment for current needs while leaving enough for the future and not permanently damaging the environment
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Give an example of sustainable development?
Fishing quotas, woods are replanted
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Why is it crucial to carry out sustainable development?
Fossil fuels will run out as there is a demand for energy we need to use alternative fuels,we need to supply food without destroying habitats,waste needs to be disposed with minamal pollution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens as you move down the groups?

Back

As you get to species there are fewer organisms in the group as they share more similarities

Card 3

Front

What are the 2 ways organisms can be classified?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are organisms classified in an artificial system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are organisms classed in a natural system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

roseantigua

energy efficiency = energy used usefully/ total energy taken in * by 100 to give a percentage.

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