B2

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  • Created by: robyn16
  • Created on: 28-01-14 18:52
What is classification?
when living organisms are organised into groups
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What is a natural classification?
genetic similarities between organisms
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What is artificial classification?
when the classificiation is based on looks rather than genes
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What is the order of the classification system?
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
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What is a genus?
A group of closely-related species
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Why do classification systems change over time?
because new species are discovered and may not fit the catagories
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What is the definition of a species?
a group of organisms which can INTERBREED to produce FERTILE OFFSPRING
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What is asexual reproduction?
Is when an organism reproduces by making a copy of itself- NO INTERBREEDING WITH ANOTHER ORGANSIM
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What is a hybrids?
when you breed a male from one species with a female from a different one
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What is the binomial system? Give an example.
Gives everything a two part name ****-spaiens
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What are pyramids of biomass?
It shows the mass of of the living material at that particular stage in the food process
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What are pyramids of numbers?
These focus on the NUMBER of organisms not the mass
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What are the 3 main reasons energy is lost?
Light, excretion/egestion, and heat loss, respiration
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What are tropic levels?
the different animals/materials that are in the food chain
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How do you find out how much of something was lost?
You take away the next energy available from the previous.... e.g. 80000-10000= 70,000
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What are the two types of competiton within species?
IntErspecific and intrAspecific
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What is intErspecific competition?
is when organisms compete for reources against individuals from another species
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What is intrAspecific?
when organisms compete for recources against individualds from the SAME species
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What one, interspecific or intraspecific, has a bigger impact? Explain why?
intrAspecific has a bigger impact because individuals in the same species need the SAME needs and have to compete for the same things
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What is a parasite? Example
live off a host. They take what they need to surive without giving anything back. Tapeworm- absorbs nutrients from the host
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What is a mutualism? Example
is where the host and parasite benefit. Oxpeckers- live on the back of buffalo. They eat pests but also make the buffalo aware of any predators by hissing
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What do adaptations do?
they help organisms to surive
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What is the advantage of adaptations?
they help animals to survive, reproduce and pass on thie adaptations to their offspring
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What are specialists organisms?
these are adapted to live in a SPECIFIC habitat,e.g. giant pandas
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What are generalists?
these are adapted to live in a range of different habitats, e.g. black rats
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What are extremophiles?
they live in extreme conditions (hot or cold)
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How do extremophile bacteria live?
they live in HOT conditions, the enzymes work best at a higher temperature then other ones. These fuction normally at temperatures that would usually denature the enzymes. 65 degrees
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How do organisms that live in cold environments live?
They have anitfreeze proteins. They interfere with the formation and growth of ice crystals and stops the cells getting damaged.
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Give 3 examples of anatomical adaptations.
thick coat/layer of blubber to insulate, large size body and compact body shape
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What is darwins theory called?
natural selection (survival of the fittest)
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What is natural selection?
he thought that the fittest (best adapted) animals would be more successful so more likely to survive. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST. The successful organisms would then reproduce which will pass on the adaptations onto the offspring
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How are adaptations passed on through off spring?
by the genes (DNA)
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What is speciation?
when over time an organism has changed so much that it has formed a whole new species,
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How does speciation occur?
a physical barrier (river) will divide the species so they cannot mix, different mutations, fertile offdpring produced
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Why is the binomial system important to the worldwide scientists?
scientists all over the world can know the name of the animal as all scientists refer to the same things
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What are counter-current heat exchange systems?
blood vessels going to and from the feet carry blood that flows in opposite directions. The vessels pass close to each other, allowing heat to transfer. So feet remain cold
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Name a behavioural adaptation.
some hibernate, some migrate to warmer climates during the winter, penguins huddle together
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How do behavioural adaptations increase heat loss?
animals stay underground or in shade to reduce heat getting to them
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How do anatomical adaptations increase heat loss?
some have large surface area to volume ratio so they loose more body heat e.g. large ears on aniamls
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How have plants adapted to the dry environments?
round shaped minimises water loss, thick waxy layer, store water in their stems, have shallow but extensive roots
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How have animals adapted to the dry environments?
Special kidneys so they produce concentrated urine, no sweat glands prevents water being lost, spend time underground
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Why didn't people agree with Darwins theory?
went against religious beliefs about how the earth developed, not enough evidence to convince many scientists
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What was Lamarks theory?
he thought that if a characteristic as used enough by an animal then it would be developed which would then be passed on to it's offspring. EXAMPLE- giraffes necks
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Why do people nowadays accept Darwins theory?
it has been debated and tested by many scientists- good explination
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What is the carbon cycle powered by?
photosynthsis
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What is the cause of global warming?
fossil fuels, coal and oil and natural gas
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What happens in global warming?
the fossil fuels,coal,oil and natural gas are burnt which releases lots of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. These are trapped in the atmosphere which causes the temperature to increase
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What animals can live in unpolluted conditions?
Lichens- used to monitor air quality, mayfly larvae- monitor water quality
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What animals are adapted to live in polluted conditions?
Water lice, rat-tailed maggots and sludge worms
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Advantages of living methods to look at pollution levels.
quick, cheap and easy
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Disadvantages of living methods to look at pollution levels.
not always reliable
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Advantages of non living methods to look at pollution levels.
reliable, numerical and shows the exact pollutants that are identified
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Disadvantages of non living methods to look at pollution levels.
very expensive to get the equipment
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What does endagered mean?
when there is not many of the species left in the wild
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Species become endagered when...
the number of habitats decrease, the number of individuals harder to find mates to produce, GENETIC VARIATION
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How do conservation programmers benefit the wildlife and humans
protects human food supply, minimal damage to the food change, future medicines, cultural aspects
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What is sustainable development?
providing for the needs of today's increasing population without harming the environment
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Whats being done to promote sustainable development?
fishing quotas which stops fish such as cod becoming extinct, logging companies have to plant new trees each time
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What is captive breeding?
it is when an animal has been captured and made to breed in captivity so more of the animal can be produced
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Why do you never usually get over 5 tropic levels?
so much energy is lost at each stage that there's not enough left to support more organisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a natural classification?

Back

genetic similarities between organisms

Card 3

Front

What is artificial classification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the order of the classification system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a genus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

zo123petite

Just a note, you spelt photosynthesis wrong! You spelt it like this 'photosynthsis' you missed the 'e'

hadgert

If your worrying about the D don't

hadgert

You'll be getting it later:;0

hadgert

Oi!!!!!! THIS IS B1

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