B2.3 Enzymes

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  • Created by: Maddi
  • Created on: 11-10-14 18:47
What is a protein?
Protein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids.
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What do proteins do?
Proteins act as structual components of tissues, as hormones, as antibodies, and as catalysts.
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What is an enzyme?
Protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst. It changes the rate of chemical reactions without being affected itself at the end of each reaction.
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How do enzymes work?
The substrate of the reaction fits into the active site of the enzyme. Once it is in place the enzyme and the substrate bind together. The reaction then takes place rapidly and the products are released from the surface of the enzyme.
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What is a catalyst?
A substance which speeds up a chemical reaction. At the end of the reaction the catalyst remains chemically unchanged.
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What is an active site?
The site on an enzyme where the reactants bind.
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What are enzymes involved in / what do enzymes do?
Enzymes are involved in: building large molecules from lots of smaller ones, changing one moelcule into another and breaking down large molecules into smaller ones.
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What two factors affect enzyme action?
Temperature and pH.
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How does increasing the temperature affect your enzymes?
The protein structure of the enzyme is affected by high temperature. The long amino acid chains begin to unravel. As a result, the shape of the active site changes. We say the enzyme has been denatured. It can no longer act as a catalyst.
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Why does a change in your pH affect your enzymes?
If the pH is too acidic or alkaline for the enzyme, then the active site could change shape. Then the enzyme becomes denatured.
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Why is it dangerous if your temperature increases too much when you are ill?
Once your body temperature reaches about 41’C, your enzymes start to be denatured and you will soon die.
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Where are your digestive enzymes made?
Digestive enzymes are made by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. They work outside of the body cells in the gut itself.
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How are enzymes involved in the digestion of your food?
Different enzymes catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into smaller, souble molecules during digestion.
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What do amylase enzyme do?
The enzyme amylase is produced in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine. This enzyme catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
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What do protease enzymes do?
These enzymes catalyse the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and the small intestine.
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What do lipase enzymes do?
These enzymes catalyse the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
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What are lipase enzymes produced by?
Lipase enzymes are produced by the pancreas and small intestine.
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What are protease enzymes produced by?
Protease enzymes are produced by the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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Where is bile produced?
The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before being released into the small intestine.
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What does bile do?
Bile neutralises the acid that was added to food in the stomach. This provides alkaline conditions in which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively.
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Why does your stomach contain hydrochloric acid?
The enzymes of the stomach work best in acid conditions.
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How do biological detergents work?
Biological detergents contain protease and lipases. These enzymes break down the proteins and fats in stains.
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How are enzymes used in the food industry?
Proteases are used to ‘pre-digest’ the protein in some baby foods. Carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup. Isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, used in slimming foods.
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What are the advantages of using enzymes?
In industry, enzymes are used to bring about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy-demanding equipment.
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes?
Most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and many are costly to produce.
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What are the advanatages of using enzymes in detergents?
Effective at cleaning at low temperatures, use a lot less electricity. Therefore better for the environment and cheaper for the consumer.
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What are the disadvanatages of using enzymes in detergents?
Some people are worried about all the enzymes going into our rivers and seas from biological detergents. Also, the low temperatures used to wash with biological detergents may not be as good at kiling pathogens on clothes.
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Can doctors use enzymes to keep you healthy?
Enzymes can be used to diagnose disease, to control disease and to cure disease.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do proteins do?


Proteins act as structual components of tissues, as hormones, as antibodies, and as catalysts.

Card 3


What is an enzyme?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How do enzymes work?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a catalyst?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Amazing set. Covers the whole of the B2.5 topic. Thank you

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