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What are proteins made-up of?
Long chains of amino acids that are folded to produce shapes depending on its function.
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Give examples of proteins?
Structural components(tissues, muscle), hormones, antibodies, catalysts
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What are enzymes?
Proteins that control chemical reactions in cells + biological catalysts (speed up reactions)
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How do enzymes connect the substrate to another molecule or break it down?
Enzymes are large proteins and have an "active site" which can hold the substrate in a reaction and either be connected to another molecule or be broken down
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What can Enzymes do?
Build large molecules from many smaller ones(i.e.glucose-->starch), Change 1 molecule into another 1, break down large molecules into smaller one
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How are enzyme reactions affected at higher temperatures and when it is too hot?
faster reactions when warmer as molecules move around faster & collide more often + with nore energy but when it is too hot the active site changes shape & the enzyme becomes denatured.
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How do pH values affect enzyme reactions?
If the pH is too acidic/alkaaline the active site changes shape and the enzyme becomes denatured (acidic in stomach etc)
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Where are digestive enzymes produced?
By specialised cells in glands + in lining of gut. Pass out of cells & come into contact with food.
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What does digestion involve?
Breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules.
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What is Amylase (a carbohydrase)
Produced by salivary glands, pancreas + small intestine & catalyses digestion of starch into sugars in mouth/small intestine
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What is protease?
Produced by stomach, pancreas + small intestine & catalyses breakdown of proteins into amino acids in stomach/small intestine
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What is Lipase?
Produced by pancreas + small intestine & catalyses the breakdown of fats in the stomach & small intestine
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What type of pH does protease, amylase & lipase work in?
Protease enzymes in stomach = acidic (Glands in stomach wall produce HCl to create acidic conditions). Amylase + Lipase in small intestine = alkaline
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What is bile?
Produced by liver, stored in gall bladder - alkaline bile squirted into small intestine + neutralises stomach acid & makes conditions in small intestine slightly alkaline
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What enzymes do biological detergents contain + what are the benefitsof using them?
Proteases & Lipases that digest food stains (more effective). Work at lower temp (saves fuel - enviro + cheaper)
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How are enzymes used in baby foods?
Proteases used to pre-digest proteins in some baby foods
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How is Isomerase used after carbohydrase converts starch to sugar syrup?
To convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup which sweeter therefore you would need less of it & decrease calories in foods
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How can enzymes be used in industry?
Used to bring about reactions in normal temps/pressures. Traditional chemical processes require high temps/pressures + expensive equipment
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What are the advantages of using enzymes?
Biological washing powders - more effective, cheaper, enviro-friendly. Used in medicine. Reduce costs of equipment/energy in industry.
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes?
Misuse - allergic skin reactions. Costly to produce. Denature @ high temp. Digest some fabrics. Protease digests wool. May enter waterways via sewage system
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Card 2


Give examples of proteins?


Structural components(tissues, muscle), hormones, antibodies, catalysts

Card 3


What are enzymes?


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Card 4


How do enzymes connect the substrate to another molecule or break it down?


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Card 5


What can Enzymes do?


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