B2 OCR

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  • Created by: xfirereg
  • Created on: 02-05-16 12:47
Describe 2 ways that microorganisms can cause symptoms of an infectious disease
1) Some bacteria produce proteins that damage the material holding cells together 2) Other produce toxins that poison cells
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Why can bacteria can reproduce quickly inside the human body?
Bacteria need a source of nutrients, warmth and moist conditions. The Human body has all of these
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If you start with one bacterium that reproduces every 40 minutes, how many bacteria will you have after 6 hours?
512
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What is the role of the immune system?
The immune system fights off invading microbes
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3 different ways antibodies get rid of an infection
1) They mark the microorganism so white blood cells can engulf and digest it 2) They bind to and neutralise virus/toxins 3) Some can kill bacteria directly
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Why are you immune to most diseases that you've already had?
Memory cells
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How does vaccination give you immunity in the future?
Dead cells are injected into people. The dead cells contain antigens. White blood cells produce an antibody - Memory cells
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95% of people have had a vaccine, how does this benefit the 5% that didn't?
If most people are vaccinated, even the people that aren't vaccinated are unlikely to catch the disease - fewer people to pass it on to
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Explain why vaccines aren't completely risk free for everyone
Some people can have sever side effects or are allergic to egg products
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What is an anti microbial?
Chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganism or kill them without serious damage to your body cells
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Why shouldn't antibiotics be prescribed to someone with the flu
Antibiotics don't kill viruses
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How can a population of microorganisms become resistant to antimicrobials?
microorganisms sometimes develop random mutations and become resistant to antimicrobials
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Why are patients advised to complete a course of antibiotics even if they start to feel better
This increases the risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria emerging
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2 ways that new drugs are usually tested before they're given to humans
The drugs are first tested on human cells and animals before given to humans
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Why are drugs tested on health people first and not ill patients
To make sure it doesn't have any harmful side effects when the body is working normally
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What is a placebo?
'fake' treatments which don't actually involve giving the drug to the patient
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What is a double-blind clinical trial?
The doctors/scientists don't find out until the end which patients got real drugs and placebos.
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Explain the importance of long-term human drug trials
In some cases it takes a while for a drug to have the effects it was designed for + checking for side effects
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The heart is a double pump - what does this mean?
The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The left side pumps the oxygenated around the body
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How is the structure of an artery adapted to its function?
Arteries carry blood away from the heart (high pressure). The artery wall is strong and elastic (thick).
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Structure of the vein?
Carries blood back to the heart (low pressure). Walls aren't as thick as arteries but the Lumen is bigger
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Capillaries?
Really tiny
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Explain why a person's heart rate can be measured by taking their pulse
Your heart rate is the number of times your heart beats in one minute - BPM (beats per minute)
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When a blood pressure measurement is taken, what is actually being measured?
The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries
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Describe one way that high blood pressure can cause heart disease
High blood pressure increases the risk of Heart disease
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Explain how epidemiological studies can be used to identify the risk factors for heart disease
Epidemiological studies can identify lifestyle risk factors
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What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis is all about balancing inputs with outputs to maintain a constant internal environment
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2 main components of the body's automatic control systems
water content, body temperature etc
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2 ways water is gained by the body
-Drinks -Respiration
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why can bacteria can reproduce quickly inside the human body?

Back

Bacteria need a source of nutrients, warmth and moist conditions. The Human body has all of these

Card 3

Front

If you start with one bacterium that reproduces every 40 minutes, how many bacteria will you have after 6 hours?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the role of the immune system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

3 different ways antibodies get rid of an infection

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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