B2 Key Words and Meaning

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Active Site
Site on enzyme molecule that has special shape that holds substrate
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Active transport
Movement of molecule against concentration gradient using energy
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Adenine
A base in DNA that pairs with thymine
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Adult stem cell
A stem cell in differentiated tissue that can produce a few kinds of cells
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Aerobic respiration
Respiration that needs oxygen
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Alimentary canal
The muscular tube that runs from the mouth to the ****
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Allele
Different types of a gene eg- brown eyes, blue eyes
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Amylase
Carbohydrase enzyme that turns starch to sugar
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Amino acids
A small molecule that is the building block of protein
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Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that does not need oxygen
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Antibody
Proteins that bind to microorganism and destroys them
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Aorta
Major artery leading away from the heart
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Arteries
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
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Asexual reproduction
Formation of a new individual identical to its parents using mitosis
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Base
Chemicals that link two strands of DNA (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine)
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Base pair
Complementary bases always pair up in the same way
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Base triplet
Three bases that code for an amino acid
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Benedict's test
Blue liquid which turns orangery-red when heated with reducing sugar
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Beta-carotene
Substance in food that the body uses to make vitamin A
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Bifidobacteria
Example of probiotic bacteria
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Bile
Alkaline substance stored in gall bladder that helps fat digestion
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Bile duct
Tube that connects gall bladder to small intestine
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Biodiversity
Variety of species present in a given area
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Bolus
A ball-shaped mass of chewed food
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Blood vessels
Tubes that carry blood around the body
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Capillary
Tiny blood vessels with thin walls that allow diffusion of substances in and out
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Carbohydrases
Enzymes which catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates to sugar
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Carbohydrates
Compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used for energy
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Cardiac output
Volume of blood that the heart pumps put in one minute (stroke volume x heart rate)
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Cell membrane
Semi-permeable barrier around outer surface of cytoplasm
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Cells
Basic unit of life in which reactions to sustain life take lace
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Cellulose
Cell walls are made of tough cellulose to support and shape the cell
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Chlorophyll
Green pigment which absorbs light energy
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Chloroplast
Organelle in plant cells containing chlorophyll. Where photosynthesis happens
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Cholesterol
Fat made in the liver and carried in the blood. High levels increase risk of heart disease.
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Chromosomal DNA
DNA which makes up the chromosomes of a cell
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Chromosome
Thread-like structures in the nucleus which carry genetic information
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Circulatory system
Organ system including the heart and blood vessels, carrying blood around the body
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Clone
Individual genetically identical to parent created by asexual reproduction
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Concentration gradient
When a solute is gradually increasing concentration from one area to another
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Cytoplasm
The liquid gel that makes up a cell. Where many reactions take place
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Cytosine
A base in DNA that pairs with guanine
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Duaghter cell
Cell produced from the division of a parent
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Denature
To break down or change shape, as proteins denature with excess heat
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Deoxygenated
Without oxygen
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Chemical that makes chromosomes and genes
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Differentiate
Specialise, develop into different types eg. cells becoming blood, bone, nerves, ect
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Diffusion
Random movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration
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Digestion
Breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble ones
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Digestive system
System of organs responsible for breakdown and absorption of food
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Diploid
A cell that has two sets of chromosomes. In humans, this is every cell except gametes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Movement of molecule against concentration gradient using energy

Back

Active transport

Card 3

Front

A base in DNA that pairs with thymine

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A stem cell in differentiated tissue that can produce a few kinds of cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Respiration that needs oxygen

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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