B2-Keeping Healthy

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What are 3 types of micro organisms?
Bacteria, Virus and Fungi
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What can symptoms be caused by?
Cell damage or toxins
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What are the affects that an infection has on the body called and give some examples?
Symptoms. Such as a fever or a rash
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How does a bacterium reproduce?
It reproduces asexually.
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What conditions does bacteria need in order for it to multiply?
A source of nutrients and they need warm and moist conditions.
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What does a virus need in order for it to reproduce?
They need other cells to reproduce. So they use other cells' resources
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How can you calculate the growth of a micro organism population?
2 to the power x. (x being the amount of reproducing periods
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What does the immune system do?
Fight off invading microbes
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Which blood cells are involved in the immune system?
White blood cells
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How do white blood cells deal with microbes?
The white blood cell detects that something is foreign. Then the white blood cell engulfs and digests them. These white blood cells are not specific, so they attack anything that is not supposed to be there.
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What do antibodies recognise?
Foreign micro organisms
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Which type of white blood cells attack specific micro organisms?
Antibodies
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What are antigens?
Substances that trigger an immune response
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Where are antigens found?
They are proteins on the molecules surface
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What are antibodies?
Proteins that are specific to a certain antigen
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How do antibodies work on bacteria?
Some can attach to bacteria and kill them directly
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How do antibodies work on virus' and toxins?
They bind to virus' and toxins.
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How do antibodies work on micro organisms
They 'mark' the micro organism so that white blood cells can engulf and digest it.
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What is a memory cell?
A white blood cell that can produce antigens specific to a disease the person has had before
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What happens when the right white blood cell recognises an antigen?
It reproduces
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What do memory cells provide you with?
Immunity
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What is inside a vaccination?
A safe version of a dangerous micro organism
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How does a vaccine work?
Either dead or inactive micro organisms are injected into your body. Then your body produces antibodies to attack them - even though it is harmless. Then there are memory cells, so you are immune.
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How can an epidemic be prevented?
By vaccinating a large number of people
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Why can people have bad reactions whereas some don't?
Because of genetic difference and vaccines are never completely safe.
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What is an antimicrobial?
A chemical that inhibits the growth of a micro organism without damaging your body cells
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What is an antibacterial?
A type of antimicrobial that can kill bacteria
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Why do micro organisms become resistant?
Because they evolve and reproduce.
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Why is resistant micro organisms dangerous?
Because eventually, we will stop being able to treat them
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Why is it important to finish a course of antibiotics?
Because they give the naturally resistant bacteria and advantage, so they increase in numbers.
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Where are drugs first tested?
In a laboratory using human cells
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Where are the drugs tested secondly?
On humans and then clinical trials
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When do clinical trials start and why?
When healthy people don't show any side effects and to test its effectiveness and safety
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Why are placebos used?
So you can compare the patients' outcomes.
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When is a placebo not use?
When a patient is seriously ill because it is unethical
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What are the name of the 3 human trials?
Blind, double-blind and open-label
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What is a blind trial and why is it used?
The patients don't know which drug they are getting. It is used because they might psychologically feel better, even if they are not.
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What is a double-blind trial and why is it used?
The doctors and the patients don't know what drug they are getting. This is used so that when they are analysing the results, they aren't being influenced.
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What is an open-label trial and why is it used?
The patient and the doctor know which drug they are getting. This is usually used when you can't mask the treatments being tested.
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Why is it important that a human trial is long?
To test for any long term side effects
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What is blood circulated around the body in?
Blood vessels
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Why is the heart said to be a double pump?
Because the right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left side pumps the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body
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What are the names of the 3 major blood vessels?
The arteries, veins and capillaries
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What does an artery do?
They carry blood away from the heart. It comes out at a high pressure, so the walls have to be strong and elastic.
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Why do the walls of an artery strong and elastic?
Because the blood is pumped at a very high pressure
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What does a vein do?
They carry blood back to the heart. They have a bigger lumen to make the blood flow more easily. They also have valve to make sure the blood doesn't flow backwards.
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Why does a vein have a bigger lumen?
Because the blood needs to flow more easily
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What are capillaries?
Branches of arteries that exchange substances. So they have a permeable wall
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Why do capillaries have thin walls?
So that substances can diffuse in and out easily.
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What is your heart rate measured in?
BPM
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What is the higher value when taking blood pressure?
It is the pressure of when the heart contracts
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What is the lower value when taking blood pressure?
It is the pressure of the blood when the heart relaxes
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What does high blood pressure increase the risk of?
Heart disease
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What cause heart disease?
Fatty deposits blocking the coronary arteries. The high blood pressure damaging the inner lining of an artery.
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What are the lifestyle factors that can cause heart disease?
Poor diet, Stress, Smoking, misuse of illegal drugs and excessive alcohol drinking
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What is homeostasis?
It is the maintaining of a constant internal environment
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What is negative feedback?
When the level of something is not normal, it triggers responses to counteract the change.
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How does our body gain water?
Drink, food and respiration
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How does our body lose water?
Sweating, breathing, faeces and urine
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Why are the kidneys useful?
They filter small molecules from the blood, including water, sugar, salt and waste. They reabsorb sugar and as much salt and water as they can.
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How is urine formed?
From the stuff that the kidney doesn't reabsorb
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How do the kidney's balance your water levels?
By changing the concentration of urine. This is by releasing a hormone called ADH, which is released by the pituitary.
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What can ADH be affected by?
Drugs and alcohol
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How does alcohol affect ADH?
Drinking alcohol results in large amounts of dilute urine because the alcohol suppresses the production of ADH, so the kidneys reabsorb less water. This can therefore cause dehydration.
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How does ecstasy affect ADH?
Ecstasy causes concentrated urine in small amounts. It causes more ADH to be produced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can symptoms be caused by?

Back

Cell damage or toxins

Card 3

Front

What are the affects that an infection has on the body called and give some examples?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does a bacterium reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What conditions does bacteria need in order for it to multiply?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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