B2 Cell Differentiation & Stem Cells OCR Gateway (9-1)

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  • Created by: Aleena
  • Created on: 13-04-18 12:48
What is Differentiation?
The process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job/function
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At stage do most animal cells loose the ability to differentiate?
Animal cells loose this ability to differentiate at an early stage
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When do plants loose their ability to differentiate?
Actually most plants don't ever loose the ability to differentiate
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Why is it important to have specialised cells?
It's important to have specialised cells because it allows organisms to work more efficiently
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How are Palisade Leaf Cells specialised for their job/function?
Photosynthesis happens the most in Palisade cells-they're packed with Chloroplasts,have tall shape-high surface area,so they can absorb more CO2. Also,their tall shape means you can fit loads of them at top of a leaf-so they're closer to the light
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What is the job of a Sperm Cell?
The job of a sperm cell is to get the male DNA to the female DNA during Sexual Reproduction
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How is the Sperm cell specialised to carry out this function?
Sperm have long flagellum (long tail) & streamlined heads to help them swim. Also they contain lots of Mitochondria to provide them with energy & have enzymes in their heads to digest the egg cell membrane
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What are tissues?
Specialised cells grouped together form tissues-groups of cells working together to perform a particular function.Different tissues work together to form different functions.Different organs make up an organ system
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What is a stem cell?
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can give rise to more cells of the same type & can differentiate to form other types of cells
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In humans what the 2 places we can find stem cells?
In the early human embryos or the Bone Marrow
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What do we call stem cells in the embryo
Embryo-ball of cells These cells are called Embryonic Stem Cells
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Why are Embryonic stem cells better than stem cells found in the Bone marrow?
This is because the stem cells in the bone marrow can only differentiate to form cells that are in our blood e.g.white blood cells. However, embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any cell in the body
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In adults what is the function of stem cells?
Adult stem cells are used to replace damaged cells e.g. to make new blood or skin cells
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In plants where do you find cells that only divide by Mitosis?
In plants the only cells that divide by mitosis are found in plant tissues called Meristems
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Where are Meristem tissues found in plants?
Meristem tissues are found in the areas of a plant that are growing e.g.roots & shoots
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What type of cells do Meristems produce?
Meristems produce unspecialised cells aka stem cells- so are able to divide and form any cell type in the plant
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How do the stem cells produced by Meristems in plants differ from the human embryonic stem cells?
Stem cells produced by Meristems can divide to generate any type of cell for as long as the plant lives-the ability isn't lost unlike in embryonic stem cells in humans
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How can we use stem cells made by Meristems to conserve biodiversity?
We could use stem cells to clone a plant-stopping it from going extinct & it's cheap
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How do farmers use stem cells in Meristem tissues?
Farmers can use Stem cells in Meristems to make clones of crops-like disease-resistant crops
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Describe what happens during a bone marrow transplant?
The patients existing bone marrow is destroyed using radiation.Then. patient receives a transplant of a new bone marrow from a donor. The stem cells in the bone marrow divide & differentiate to form blood cells
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Why do people get a bone marrow transplant?
People get a bone marrow transplant if they have leukemia-a cancer of the bone marrow
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What are the 2 problems with bone marrow transplant?
The donor has to be compatible with the patient or white blood cells produced by donated bone marrow could attack the patient's body.Also, there's a risk that viruses can be passed from the donor to the patient
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What is Therapeutic Cloning?
An embryo is produced with the same genes as the patient
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Describe how Therapeutic Cloning works?
Stem cells from embryo can be transplanted into patient without being rejected by the patient's immune system. Once inside the patient, stem cells can then differentiate to replace cells which have stopped working correctly
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What medical conditions is Therapeutic Cloning useful for?
Therapeutic cloning is useful for medical conditions e.g.diabetes or paralysis
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Why do people have ethical/religious objections against the use of human embryonic stem cells?
Because some people argue that embryos are human and you shouldn't human kill human life.
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How do stem cells differentiate?
Depending on what instructions a stem cell is given, they can divide by mitosis to become new cells-which then differentiate
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At stage do most animal cells loose the ability to differentiate?

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Animal cells loose this ability to differentiate at an early stage

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When do plants loose their ability to differentiate?

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Card 4

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Why is it important to have specialised cells?

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Card 5

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How are Palisade Leaf Cells specialised for their job/function?

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