B2 biology gatway

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how are organisms classified
into groups according to characteristics
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what are the different types of classification
Artificial and natural
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what is an artificial system based on
characteristics
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what is a natural system based on
evolutionary relationships
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what is a species
a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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how are animals named
the binomial system
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how does the binomial system work
Genus then species in a name
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How can evolutionary relationships be displayed
using evolutionary trees
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How can evolutionary relationships of organisms be moddled
by analyzing multiple characteristics and using ict
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why is the binomial naming system important
its the international basis of naming species
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why is classification not perfect
hybrid, organisms that reproduce asexually and and evolution is a continuing process
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what is a closely related species
they share a recent ansestor
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why may closely related species have different features
they may live in different habitats
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what does ecologically mean
live in similar habitats
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what does tropic level mean
the stages of a food chain
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why are there difficulties in constructing pyramids of biomass
organisms may belong to more then one tropic level and problems in measuring biomass
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how is energy wasted in the food chain
heat from respiration,excretion and egestion
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where does all energy in the food chain originally come from
the sun
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what can excretory products and faeces be used as
starting points for other food chains
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how would you calculate the efficiency of energy transfer
energy transferred to next level ÷ total energy in × 100
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why is there a limited length of food chain
he loss of energy limits the length of chain
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what are soil bacteria and fungi and what do they do
they are decomposes which decay dead organisms and convert then into proteins and urea into ammonia
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that is important about decay
it makes elements available again to living organisms
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How is carbon recycled in nature by marine organisms
marine organisms make shells made of carbonates and become limestone •
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Why does the recycling of nutrients take longer in waterlogged or acidic soils than it does in well drained neutral soils
For decomposers to break down dead material in soil, they need oxygen and a suitable ph -waterlogged soils slow down decay as there is little oxygen -acidic conditions also slow down decay
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How does the carbon get into the ocean
volcanic eruption or weathering releases carbon as carbon dioxide and the oceans absorb carbon dioxide
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how nitrogen is recycled in nature
plants use nitrates for protein for growth. feeding passes nitrogen compounds along a food chain or web • nitrogen compounds in detritus are broken down by decomposers and return to the soil
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why do plants need nitrogen
for protine
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what happens to nitrogen when in detritus
broken down by decomposers and return to the soil
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what do nitrifying bacteria do
convert ammonia to nitrates
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what do denitrifying
convert nitrates to nitrogen gas
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what fixes nitrogen gas
nitrogen-fixing bacteria or by the action of lightning
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Why are similar animals in the same habitat in close competition
similar animals in the same habitat are in close competition because they need the same resources such as food to survive
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How do organisms within a species compete
organisms within a species compete for mates so they can breed
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what is parasitism
the parasite benefits to the living host's loss of health
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what is mutualism
both species benefit
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what is inter specific compertion
between a host of organisms of different species
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what is infra specific competion
intraspecific competition is between organisms of the same species and it is more significant because the organisms share more similarities and consequently need the same resources
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What is meant by the term ecological niche
An ecological niche is the habitat an organism lives in and its role in the habitat
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what part does the nitrogen fixing Bactria play in the root nodules of leguminous plants
the bacteria turn nitrogen into nitrogen-containing chemicals and give some to the pea plant
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what part does the pea plant in helping he bacteria in its root nodules
the pea plant gives the bacteria some sugars that have been produced by photosynthesis
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what is the relationship between the pea plant and the bacteria in its root nodules
mutualism
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What is the counter-current heat exchange system in penguins to minimise heat loss
Warm blood entering the flippers warms up the cold blood leaving the flippers, to stop it cooling the body
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where might you find antifreeze proteins
biochemically adapted plants to survive extreme cold
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what are extremophiles
Organisms that can survive in hot conditions
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why can some bacteria can live in hot springs
because they have enzymes that do not denature at temperatures as high as 100 celsius
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What is a specialist
organisms which are well suited to only certain habitats
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What is a generalist
organisms which can live in a range of habitats but can easily be out-competed.
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True or false Darwin's theory of evolution says that there is variation in any species
True
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True or false Darwin's theory of evolution says that organisms produce less more young than will survive
False he said that organisms produce far more young than will survive
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Did Darwin say 'survival of the fittest' and what does this mean
yes when there is competition for limited resources only the best adapted will survive
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what happens to organisms that successfully survive
pass on successful adaptation to the next generation (in their genes)
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what conditions do there need to be for a new species to form
it only happens if different groups of organismsm cannot mate for along time
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what may prevent different groups of organisms mating
geographical isolation or because of behavioral isolation
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geographical isolation or because of behavioral isolation how can this lead to different species
if each group evolves differently ,over time they become different enough to be classified as seperate species
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what was Lamarks theory of evolution
His theory said that a characteristic which is used more and more by an organism becomes bigger and stronger. One that is not used disappears eventually. Any characteristic of an organism that is improved through use is passed to its offspring.
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why was Lamarck's theory was discredited
his explanation did not have a genetic basis
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what does exponentially mean
ever-increasing
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why is the human population growing
birth rate exceeding the death rate
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what indicator species tests for clean water
the mayfly larva
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what does lichen indicate
clean air
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What does species indicates pollution water
the waterlouse and blood worm
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what two ways can pollution can be measured
by direct measurement of pollutant levels and by measuring the occurrence of indicator species.
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Explain the term 'carbon footprint'
the amount of greenhouse gases given off in a certain period of time
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Describe the advantages of using living methods of measuring levels of pollution
using indicator organisms is cheaper,does not need equipment that can go wrong,can monitor pollution levels for longer
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Describe the advantages of using non-living methods of measuring levels of pollution
direct methods can give more acuurate measurements at any specific time
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How do species become at risk of extinction
if the number of individuals or habitats falls below a critical level.
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why might some species be in danger of extinction (mention genetic variation)
if the population is below a critical level there is unlikely to be enough genetic variation in the population to enable it to survive
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what are the commercial values of living whales
tourism, entertainment, research and captive breeding programs
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what are the commercial values of dead whales
food, oil and cosmetics when dead
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what do we still not understand about whales
communication and migration patterns -survival at extreme depths
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what does sustainable development mean
providing for the needs of an increasing population without harming the environment
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what are the different types of classification

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Artificial and natural

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what is an artificial system based on

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what is a natural system based on

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what is a species

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