B2 and B3

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 08-06-16 22:16
Name 5 animal cells
Animal cell, sperm cell, nerve cell, epithelial cell, muscle cell
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Name 4 plant cells
Palisade, phloem, xylem, root hair
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Name the parts of a bacteria cell
Capsule, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, plasmid, nuclear material, flagellum
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Name the parts of a yeast cell
Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria.
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How do substances get into an out of cells?
Via a process called diffusion. Diffusion of substances occurs from a higher to a lower concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
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What is a tissue?
A group of specialised cells form tissue.
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Give 3 examples of human tissues and their uses
Epithelial - Lining tissue. Glandular - Produces hormones. Muscle - Contraction for movement.
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Give 3 examples of plant tissues and their uses
Epidermal - Lining tissue. Mesophyll - Photosynthesis is carried out here. Phloem and xylem tissue transport substances around the plant
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What is an organ?
A group of tissues which work together to perform a function.
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Give an example
The heart
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What is an organ system?
A group of organs which perform a specific function
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Give an example
The digestive system. The organs involved: Stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas and salivary glands
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What is photosynthesis?
The synthesis of carbon dioxide and water by light to produce glucose and oxygen
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What is the balanced symbol equation?
6CO2 + 6H20 -----> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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What are the 4 limiting factors?
Light intensity, water levels, ion levels, carbon dioxide levels
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What are the uses of glucose?
Can be converted into starch, used to make cellulose (substance in cell walls), for respiration and can be used to make plant oils.
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Why are polytunnels and greenhouse gases useful?
Can be used to provide the optimum conditions for photosynthesis to maximise crop yields.
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How can carbon dioxide levels be controlled?
Propane burners, liquid nitrogen and flue gases. Combustion of fuels produces carbon dioxide.
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How can light levels be controlled?
Using a lamp
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Why do graphs platou when a limiting factor increases past its optimum
Other factors are involved
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What is a protein?
A polypeptide chain made up of amino acids
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What is active transport?
Diffusion which goes against the concentration gradient. From a low to high concentration
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What is an adult stem cell?
It can only differentiate into a limited number of cells and is extracted from differentiated tissue.
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What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration in plenty of oxygen. Produces carbon dioxide and water and energy.
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What is an allele?
A different form of a gene
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What are alveoli?
Tiny air sacs in the lungs increasing the surface area of the lungs to maximise diffusion.
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What is an amino acid?
A simple compound which can bond to others with peptide bonds to form proteins.
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What is amylase?
A digestive enzyme which breaks down starch into glucose.
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What is anaerobic digestion?
Digestion without oxygen. It is the breakdown of substances
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What is anaerobic fermentation?
Break down of organic matter by bacteria without the presence of oxygen.
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What is anaerobic respiration?
Respiration to produce energy without oxygen.
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What is the aorta?
The largest artery in the body. Carries oxygenated blood to the body
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What is an artery?
A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart, usually oxygenated blood. Except the pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart.
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What is an atrium?
The place where blood enters the heart. A chamber
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What is bile?
A substance which emulsifies fats (breaks them down) to make it easier for lipase to digest them. Also neutralises the acidic pH as it is alkaline, excreted by the small intestine as conditions in the small intestine need to be alkaline
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What is the binding site?
The site in an enzyme which the substrate binds to.
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What is bone marrow?
Fatty tissue containing adult stem cells.
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What is breathing rate?
The number of breaths in a measured time
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What is a capillary? What are their features?
Small blood vessel, width of a red blood cell. One cell thick. Carries blood away from and towards the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood.
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What is carbohydrase?
A digestive enzyme which breaks down starch into glucose.
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What is a carbon store?
A place which keeps carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere for many years.
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What is a carrier?
A person who carries a recessive allele. They don't have the disorder but can pass it on to their offspring.
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What is a cast?
A fossil formed when dead remains are pressed into sedimentary rock creating a mould and mineral ions filling the shape, taking the shape of the organism.
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What is a catalyst?
A compound which increases the speed of a reaction.
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What is chlorophyll?
A green pigment found inside the chloroplast which captures light for photosynthesis.
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What are chloroplasts?
Organelles which contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
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What are chromosomes?
Strands of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell. 23 pairs in human cells, 46 singles. Only human cells which are different with 23 singles are gametes.
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What is the circulatory system?
A series of blood vessels which transport blood around the body.
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What is classification?
A system of organising organisms by their characteristics.
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What is climate change?
The changing of the conditions of the environment due to global warming. Rising CO2 levels.
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What are common ancestors?
An organism that is a shared ancestor of two our more species.
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What is compost?
The remains of organisms which are broken down by micro-organisms.
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What is a concentration gradient?
A difference between two concentrations.
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What is core body temperature?
The ideal temperature (optimum) for enzymes enabling them to work at their best to perform body processes. In humans it is normally around 37 degrees.
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What does denature mean?
The alteration of an enzymes binding site due to factors such as high temperatures and high pH levels.
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What is diabetes?
A disease caused when little or no insulin is produced by the liver
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What is dialysis?
It is the process by which blood is filtered outside the body using dialysis fluid to remove urea when the kidneys fail.
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What is a diaphragm?
A sheet of muscle which helps with the ventilation process.
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What is a differentiated cell?
One that has a specific function.
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What is diffusion?
The nett movement of particles from a high to low concentration along the concentration gradient.
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What is a digester?
A large vessel in which dead plant or animal material is broken down anaerobically by microorganisms.
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What does dilate mean?
To become wider.
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What does distribution mean?
The area of the environment where a species lives.
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What is DNA?
Genetic material which is found in the nucleus of living cells. Chromosomes are made up of DNA.
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What does dominant mean?
An allele which is stronger. It produces the characteristic even if only one chromosome of the two carries the allele.
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What is a double-helix?
The shape of the long DNA molecule.
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What is an ecological relationship?
The relationship of organisms with each other and their physical environment.
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What is an effluent?
A waste liquid produced from a reaction.
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What is embryo screening?
IVF - Test nucleus for allele that contains disorder - Only insert embryo into uterus if doesn't contain the allele
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What is an embryonic stem cell?
A stem cell obtained from an embryo. It can differentiate into any type of specialised cell
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What is an enzyme?
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst.
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What is an epithelial cell?
A cell that when joins with others of the same type makes epithelial tissue, lining tissue.
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What is fatigue?
Lack of response of muscles
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What is fermentation?
One kind of anaerobic respiration by microorganisms.
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What is a flagellum?
A tail
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What are food miles?
The distance food is transported from the place it is grown to the consumer.
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What is a fossil?
The remains of an organism that once lived.
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What is the gall bladder?
The organ that stores bile and releases it into the small intestine.
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What is a gamete?
A sex cell
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What is gas chromatography?
Used to separate chemicals e.g. fragments of DNA to make a DNA profile
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What is a gene?
A small section of DNA in a chromosome.
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What is a gland?
A small organ which releases chemicals.
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What is global warming?
The rise in the temperature of the earth due to increasing greenhouse gas levels, e.g. CO2.
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What is glucagon?
The hormone which converts glycogen into glucose when glucose levels are low. Glucose levels should be around 5.
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What is glucose?
A sugar produced during photosynthesis and the breakdown of starch
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What is glycogen?
The converted product of glucose via insulin which is stored in the liver.
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What is the greenhouse house effect?
Gases are trapped in the atmosphere keeping the earth warm. Not a bad thing as without it the earth would be too cold.
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What is a greenhouse?
A glass building which can be used to maintain the ideal conditions for photosynthesis to maximise crop yield.
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What is haemoglobin?
A protein that transports oxygen around the body in the blood.
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What is HOBC?
A type of artificial blood.
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What is herbicide?
A chemical that kills plants.
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What is homeostasis?
The process of regulating the internal conditions of the body.
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What does hypotonic mean?
Has a lower concentration of solute.
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What does hypertonic mean?
Has a higher concentration of solute.
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What does isotonic mean?
Balanced concentration of solute.
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What are hyphae?
Microscopic, fragile structures which have a thread-like fungal structure.
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What is an immunosuppressant drug?
One that suppresses the reaction of the immune system.
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What is insulin?
A hormone stored in the liver which converts glucose into glycogen.
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What is an insulin pump?
Machine for delivering insulin continuously. Benefit is that the patient doesn't need to remember to inject themselves. Negative: expensive.
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What are the intercostal muscles?
Muscle between the ribs which moves them up and down in breathing.
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What was the iron lung?
The first type of negative-pressure ventilator.
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What is the kidney?
An organ which filters the blood, removing waste such as urine and produces urine.
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What is kidney failure?
When the kidneys are working at less than 30%.
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What is lactic acid?
An acid produced during anaerobic respiration which can cause enzymes to denature as it alters the pH of the blood.
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What is the liver?
An organ which produces the hormone insulin to control glucose levels and stores glycogen.
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What is a limiting factor?
An environmental factor which limits the rate of a process.
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What is lipase?
A digestive enzyme which converted lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
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What is mass extinction?
An event which causes large extinction of many species during the same period.
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What is meiosis?
Cell division to produce gametes. Cells divide twice to form cells containing 23 single chromosomes. Produces 4, un-identical cells.
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What are the mitochondria?
Organelles which are where respiration occurs.
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What is mitosis?
Normal cell division which produces identical cells. Produces two cells with 46 chromosomes.
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What is a mould?
An indent formed in sedimentary rock when a dead organism is pressed into the rock.
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What is a mummy?
A type of fossil in which the soft tissue is well preserved.
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What is a negative-pressure ventilator?
A ventilator surrounding the body which causes air to be sucked into the lungs.
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What is nitrate?
A compound containing No3- ions, contains nitrogen.
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What is net movement?
Particles moving from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
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What is an organ?
A group of tissues which work together for a specific function.
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
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What is an oxygen debt?
The extra oxygen required after exercise to return conditions back to resting rate. Oxidises lactic acid to produce carbon dioxide and water.
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What is oxyhemoglobin?
Combination of haemoglobin and oxygen from the lungs.
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What is a palisade cell?
A cell packed with chloroplast. Main photosynthesising cells.
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What is the pancreas?
An organ which produces digestive enzymes and insulin.
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What is a partially permeable membrane?
A thin membrane which contains small holes only letting small substances through.
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What is PFC?
A type of artificial blood. Entirely synthetic.
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What are the phloem?
Cells which transport sugars around a plant.
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What is photosynthesis?
The process by which green plants synthesis carbon dioxide and water using light to produce glucose and oxygen/
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What is plasma?
The liquid part of the blood.
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Whats a plasmid?
A loop of genetic material.
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Whats a platelet?
A small fragment of a cell which helps blood to clot. Found in the blood.
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What does polypeptide mean?
A long chain of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds, producing proteins.
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Whats a polytunnel?
Used as a greenhouse in agriculture.
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What is a positive-pressure ventilator?
A ventilator which forces air into the lungs.
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Whats a photometer?
A piece of apparatus which measures the rate of transpiration.
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What is protease?
A digestive enzyme produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine which breaks down proteins into amino acids.
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What is a protein?
A large molecule made up of any number and type of amino acids.
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What is the pulmonary artery?
The artery which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart.
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What is the pulmonary vein?
The vein which carries oxygenated blood to the heart.
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Whats a pungent square?
A genetic diagram.
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What is a quadrat?
A frame used for sampling.
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What does recessive mean?
An allele is recessive if it requires two chromosomes of the same recessive allele to produce the characteristic.
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What is respiration?
The process by which glucose and oxygen produce carbon dioxide and water and energy.
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What is a ribosome?
An organelle where protein synthesis occurs.
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What is a root hair cell?
A cell which absorbs water via osmosis and ions via active transport.
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What is a salivary gland?
Produces the enzyme amylase
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What is shivering?
A response to maintaining the bodies environment.
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What is the small intestine?
An organ which produces the digestive enzymes amylase, protease and lipase. Works best in alkaline conditions.
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What is a specialised cell?
A cell which has a specific function.
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What is speciation?
The evolution of new species from one original species.
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What is a species?
A group of organisms with common characteristics.
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What is starch?
The form of carbohydrate stored in most plants. It is made from glucose molecules.
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What is a stem cell?
An undifferentiated cell.
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What are stoma?
Tiny holes on the surface of leaves for gas exchange.
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What is a substrate?
A molecule which an enzyme acts upon.
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What is succession?
Directional change of organisms in an environment.
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What is the thermoregulatory centre?
The part of the brain which controls and monitors body temperature.
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What is tissue?
A group of similar cells.
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What is a trace fossil?
Provides evidence for the presence of an organism, e.g. footprint.
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What is transpiration?
Water evaporates of the surface of the leaf. This draws water up through the xylem vessel from the root hair cells. Water is absorbed via osmosis from the soil into the root hair cells.
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What is type 1 diabetes?
Diabetes which is caused by genetics and is usually treated with insulin injections.
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What is urea?
It is a waste products from the break down of amino acids in the liver. It is toxic to the body so is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine.
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What is urine?
Urine contains urea, some water and some mineral ions which have not been reabsorbed. From the kidneys the urea passes through the ureter --> to the bladder --> through the urethra.
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What is a valve?
A mechanism in a vein that prevents the back flow of blood since the pressure inside the vein is low.
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What is a vein?
A vein is a blood vessel. It has a wide lumen with valves inside to prevent blood back flow. It carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart. They are thinner than arteries.
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What is the vena cava?
A vein that returns deoxygenated blood into the right atrium.
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What is ventilation?
The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
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What is a ventricle?
A chamber in the heart from which blood is pumped into the arteries.
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What are villi?
Tiny hairs lining the surface of the small intestine to increase the surface area.
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What is a xylem vessel?
It transports water around the plant.
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What is a yield?
The amount of a crop that a plant produces.
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What is a zygote?
The cell formed when two gametes fuse. Zygote - Foetus - Embryo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name 4 plant cells

Back

Palisade, phloem, xylem, root hair

Card 3

Front

Name the parts of a bacteria cell

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the parts of a yeast cell

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do substances get into an out of cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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