B2

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What is the function of the Stomach?
digests food
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What is the function of the Liver?
produces bile
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What is the function of the Large Intestine?
Absorbs water and produces faeces
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What is the function of the Small Intestine?
digest and absorb soluble food
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What is the function of the pancreas/salivary glands?
produce digestive juices
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What are the main parts of an animal cell?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitrochondria, ribosomes
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Which parts of the cell are found in plants cells but not animal cells?
Permanent vacuole, chloroplasts and cell wall
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What is important about the genetic information in a bacteria cell?
the genes are not in a nucleus
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What is the function of a Goblet cell and where is found?
goblet- makes mucus, Cillia- Moves mucus. Found in the lining of the gut and tube down to lungs
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What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
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What is a concentration gradient?
The difference in concentrations
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What does the mitochondria do?
Makes energy through respiration
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What do ribosomes do?
Make proteins from Amino acids
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what is epidermal tissue?
Your skin
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Which 3 main tissues does the stomach have and what do they do?
Muscular tissue= to churn the contents, glandular= produce digestive juices, epithelial tissue= covers outer and inner of stomach
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What are the 4 main organs of plants and what do they do?
Stem (to hold it up), leaves (for photosynthesis), roots (for stability and to collect water), flowers (reproduction)
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What tissues are plants covered in?
Epidermal- contains stomata
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Which tissue is responsible for carrying out most photosynthesis?
Mesophyl
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Which tissue transports water around the plant?
Xylem
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Which tissue transports sugars around the plant?
Phloem
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What tissue allows gases in and out of a plant leaf
Stomata
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What is the equation for photosynthesis?
carbondioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen
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What factors can limit the rate of photosynthesis?
Light, temperature, water availability and CO2 concentration
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How is glucose used by plants and algae?
Respiration, make oil for storage, proteins and cellulose for cell wall which is turned into starch
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3 ways you can alter a greenhouse to increase growth
adapt heating, artificial light, pump more CO2 in
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What is a quadrat?
a square frame used to mark out areas of ground
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What is another term for non-living factors?
abiotic= light, temp etc.
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What is another term for living factors?
biotic= prey, disease, predators
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Which molecule are proteins made from?
Long chained amino acids which fold up into specific shapes
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What are proteins and what do they act as?
They are structural components of tissue which repair muscle
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What are biological catalysts called?
Enzymes
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What property of enzymes is vital for its function?
It's unique and specific shape of their active site
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Which 2 enzymes are present in biological detergents?
Protease and lipase which break down the fats and proteins in stains
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How is isomerase used in industry?
in diet products as a sweeter to replace glucose
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What does amylase do and where is it made?
turns starch to sugar and is made in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
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What does Protese do and where is it made?
Turns proteins into amino acids and is made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine
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What does lipase do and where is it made?
Turns lipids into fatty acids and glycerol and is made in the pancreas and small intestine
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What conditions do the enzymes in the stomach work best in?
Acidic
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Aprox. what is the pH of the acid in the stomach?
pH 3 or 2
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Where is bile produced? What does it do?
the liver. It neutralises the acid which was added to the food in your stomach
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What are the chemical reactions in the body controlled by?
enzymes
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What are the reactions and products of Aerobic respiration?
glucose+oxygen --> carbondioxide+water (+energy)
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How and why does your body react during exercise?
Increases breathing and heart rate increases to get more oxygen around the body and glucose to your cells
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Which substance do muscles store glucose as?
Glycogen
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Why do muscles carry out anaerobic respiration?
Because there is not enough oxygen in the blood to do anaerobic respiration
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What is the product of anaerobic respiration?
Lactic acid
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Which produces more energy- anaerobic or aerobic respiration?
Aerobic
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What does muscle fatigue mean?
The muscles stop contracting properly
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What is fermentation?
When yeast anaerobic respiration produces ethanol and carbon dioxide- used for alcohol and bread
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What is the name of the type of cell division seen in body cells?
Mitosis
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What first happens to the genetic material when a body cell divides?
They make identical copies of themselves
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How many times does a body cell divide?
1
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What is another name for a "sex cell"
gametes
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What is the name of the type of cell division which causes gametes?
Meiosis
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What first happens to the genetic material of a cell when it divides to form gametes?
the chromosomes make copies of themselves and the similar chromosomes pair up
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How ay divisions does an original cell go through to produce sex cells?
2
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How may gametes are formed after one original cell divides?
4
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Where do human stem cells come form?
Embryos and bone marrow
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What can human stem cells have the ability to do?
Become specialised
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How are inherited characteristics controlled?
by genes
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What is a dominant allele
BB = when one or both alleles are present
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What is a recessive allele?
bb = only expressed when two of the allele are present
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What is a gene?
a small part of DNA (also note that DNA has a double helix structure)
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What does a gene contain
A specific sequence of amino acids to make a protein
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What are the male and female sex chromosomes
female= X (XX), Male= Y (XY) in which Y is dominant
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What does homozygous mean?
Both alleles are the same
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What does heterozygous mean?
Different alleles
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What does a genotype do?
describes the allele
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What is polydactyl?
a genetic disorder which causes a person to have more toes than the average 5
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What does a 'carrier' mean?
Someone who possesses the recessive allele but does not have the disease
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What is a genetic pedigree?
a diagram (like a family tree) which helps to trace inherited diseases
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What did Mendel propose and why was he not believed until after his death?
That characteristics were passed down from parents and that there is a unit for this called Genes. He only used pea plants
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the function of the Liver?

Back

produces bile

Card 3

Front

What is the function of the Large Intestine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the Small Intestine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of the pancreas/salivary glands?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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