B2.1 and B2.2

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  • Created on: 10-04-16 10:40
What causes the symptoms of an infectious disease?
The symptoms of an infectious disease are caused by damage done to cells by microorganisms or the poisons (toxins) they produce
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In what conditions can microorganisms (e.g. bacteria and viruses) reproduce rapidly?
In suitable conditions (warmth, moisture and nutrients) such as those inside a human body, microorganisms can reproduce rapidly to produce very large numbers
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How do you calculate population growth of microorganisms?
Step 1 Ensure total time microorganism is reproducing for is in mins. Step 2 Divide total time it is reproducing for by the time it takes to reproduce once. Step 3 Starting no. bacteria x2 & then keep x2 the answers for how many reproductory periods
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What is part of the immune system and how do they destroy microorganisms?
White blood cells are part of the body’s immune system and can destroy microorganisms by engulfing and digesting them or by producing antibodies
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How do antibodies recognise microorganisms?
Antibodies recognise microorganisms by the antigens that they carry on their surface, each different microorganisms have different antigens, and therefore a different antibody is needed to recognise each different type of microorganism
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How does immunity develop?
Once the body has made the antibody to recognise a particular microorganism, memory cells can make that antibody again very quickly, therefore protecting against that particular microorganism in the future (immunity).
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How do vaccines provide protection from microorganisms?
Vaccinations provide protection from microorganisms by establishing memory cells that produce antibodies quickly on reinfection
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What does a vaccine usually contain?
A vaccine usually contains a safe form of a disease-causing microorganism
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How are epidemics of infectious disease prevented?
To prevent epidemics of infectious diseases, it is necessary to vaccinate a high percentage of a population so there are fewer people to pass it on
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Why are vaccines and drugs (medicines) never completely risk-free?
Vaccines and drugs (medicines) can never be completely risk-free, since individuals have varying degrees of side effects to them
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Why do people react differently to drugs and vaccines?
Due to genetic differences, people react differently to drugs and vaccines
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Define antimicrobials
Chemicals called antimicrobials can be used to kill, or inhibit, bacteria, fungi and viruses
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Define antibiotics
Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobial that are effective against bacteria but not viruses
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What can microorganisms develop over a period of time?
Over a period of time bacteria and fungi may become resistant to antimicrobials
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How does antimicrobial resistance develop?
Random changes (mutations) in the genes of a microorganism sometimes lead to varieties which are less affected by antimicrobials.
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How can antibiotic resistance be reduced?
To reduce antibiotic resistance we should only use antibiotics when necessary and always complete the course
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What are new drugs and vaccines first tested on and tested for?
New drugs and vaccines are first tested on animals and human cells grown in the laboratory for safety and effectiveness
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Who are human trials carried out on and what for?
Human trials may then be carried out: (a) on healthy volunteers to test for safety and (b) on people with the illness to test for safety and effectiveness
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Explain the three types of human trials
Open-label trial: both scientist & patient know what treatment (drug or placebo) is given. Blind trial: patient does not know what treatment they are given but scientist does. Double-blind trial: scientist & patient don't know what treatment is given
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What is the importance of long-term human trials?
The importance of long-term human trials is it might take a long time for the effect it was designed for to be seen or for side effects to be seen.
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What are the ethical issues related to using placebos in human trials?
Some people think that it is unethical to give seriously ill patients placebos as they are not getting the potential benefits of the new drug.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In what conditions can microorganisms (e.g. bacteria and viruses) reproduce rapidly?

Back

In suitable conditions (warmth, moisture and nutrients) such as those inside a human body, microorganisms can reproduce rapidly to produce very large numbers

Card 3

Front

How do you calculate population growth of microorganisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is part of the immune system and how do they destroy microorganisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do antibodies recognise microorganisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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