B2

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What can symptoms be caused by....... ................or by................
Cell damage, Toxins
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How does Bacteria reproduce?
They make copies of themselves.
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What conditions does bacteria need to reproduce?
Nutrients for energy, Warm, Moist conditions so the chemical reactions inside them can take place.
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What do viruses need to reproduce?
Other cells, they use other cells to make more cells.
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Why do viruses find it easy to reproduce in the human body?
Because there is alot of 'other cells'.
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How do microorganisms reproduce?
By making copies of themselves.
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What is the role of the immune system?
To deal with any infectious microorganisms that enter the body.
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An immune response always involves, what?
White blood cells.
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What are the White blood cells apart of?
The immune system.
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Adifferent group of white blood cells attack specific/unspecific microorganisms.
Specific.
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What do antibodies recognise?
Foreign Microorganisms.
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What do certain kinds of white blood cells produce?
Antibodies.
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What can memory cells do?
They can reproduce antigens quickly if the same antigen enters the body for a second time, Can make you immune if enough antibodies are produced.
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What is a vaccine?
A safe version of a dangerous microorganism.
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To prevent big out breaks of diseases called ................a large percentage of the population needs to be vaccinated.
Epidemics.
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Give some disadvantages of vaccines
Can never be completely safe, Genetic differences makes them react differently.
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What are antimicrobials?
Chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them, without seriously damaging your own body cells.
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What are antibiotics?
A type of antimicrobial that can kill bacteria.
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What can antibiotics not treat?
Flu's and cold's.
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Why do you have to finish your antibiotics?
If you don't finish the prescribed medication it may increase the risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria emerging.
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In drug trials, what is a blind trial?
When the patients don't know if they've been given the drug or a placebo. Better for psychological reasons.
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In drug trials,what is a double-blind trial?
When the scientists carrying out research don't find out until the end which patients got the real drug. So the results aren't subconsciously influenced
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In drug trials, what is the open-label trials?
When both the patients and the research scientists are aware of the treatments that have been used.
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Blood is circulated around the body in tubes called, what?
Blood vessels.
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What is carried away from cells in the circulatory system?
Carbon dioxide.
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Name the 3 major types of blood vessels.
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
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What is the role of the artery?
To carry blood away from the heart to the body cells.
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Why do the walls of the artery have to be so thick?
It comes out of the heart at high pressures.
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What is the role of the vein?
Carries blood back to the heart.
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Why are the walls not as thick as the ones of the artery?
The blood is at lower pressures
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What is the role of capillaries?
They carry the blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances with them.
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What do capillaries supply?
Nutrients and Oxygen.
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What do capillaries take away?
Wastes like CO2.
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What is 'heart rate'?
The number of times your heart beats a minute.
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What is a 'pulse rate'?
The number of times an artery pulsates in one minute.
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What can lifestyle factors increase?
Heart disease.
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What is epidemiology?
The patterns of diseases and the factors that affect them.
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What can Epidemiological studies help to identify?
Lifestyle factors.
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What is Homeostasis?
Balancing inputs, with outputs to maintain a constant internal environment.
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What do kidneys do in the body?
They help balance substances in the body.
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The concentration of urine depends on the concentration of the............ ............
Blood plasma.
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What is the concentration of urine controlled?
By a hormone, called anti-diuretic hormone.
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What can ADH be affected by?
Drugs.
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Taking ecstasy can result in a................. amount of more..........................urine being produced.
Smaller, concentrated.
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Ecstasy causes the production of ADH to increase or decrease.
Increase.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does Bacteria reproduce?

Back

They make copies of themselves.

Card 3

Front

What conditions does bacteria need to reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do viruses need to reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do viruses find it easy to reproduce in the human body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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