B2

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give two ways that infectious diseases cause symptoms
damage to cells and toxins
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name three microorganisms
viruses, bacteria and fungi
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name the three conditions needed for bacteria to multiply rapidly
warmth, moisture and oxygen
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what does the word engulf mean?
to surround and digest
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how are microorganisms recognised?
antigens on their surface
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different microorganisms have different antigens, true or false?
true
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what does the white blood cell make that attaches to the antigen on the microbe?
antibodies
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what type of white blood cell remains in the blood stream and makes antibodies quickly if the microbe enters again?
memory cells
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what does the word immune mean?
someone has memory cells to make the antibodies quickly before the symptoms are shown
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what do vaccinations usally contain?
a safe (dead or inactive) form of the microorganism
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what do vaccinations usually cause the body to make?
antibodies
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vaccinations are never risk free, true or false?
true, because different people have different side effects to vaccinations
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why do people react differently to drugs and vaccines?
genetic differences
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why is it important to vaccinate a large proportion of the population?
to prevent epidemics
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antibiotics only work on what type of microorganism?
bacteria
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if an antibiotic does not kill bacteria, the bacteria is...?
resistant
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give two ways we can reduce the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria?
1)only take the antibiotic when necessary 2) complete the course of antibiotics
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what causes bacteria not to be destroyed by the antibiotic?
mutations in the DNA
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why are drugs such as vaccines tested on human cells in a lab first?
safety
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why are human trials on healthy volunteers carried out?
safety
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why are human trials carried out on people with the illness?
safety and effectiveness
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what type of drug trial does the patient and the doctor KNOW they have been given the drug and NOT a placebo?
open trial
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in what type of drug trial does the patient and the doctor NOT KNOW that they have been given the drug but the placebo
double-blind trial
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in wha type of drug trial does the patient NOT KNOW but the doctor KNOWS whether they have been given a drug or a placebo?/
blind trial
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why is the heart called a double pump?
the left side of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body, the right side pumps blood to the lungs
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why does the heart have its own blood supply?
it supplies oxygen to the heart muscles
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which blood vessel carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
arteries
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which blood vessel carries blood away from the body into the heart?
vein
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what type of blood vessel delivers the blood to the cells and is only one cell thick so the gases can diffuse easily?
capillary
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what does blood pressure measure?
the pressure of the blood on the walls of the arteries
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blood pressure has two numbers - what do the upper and lower numbers show?
the upper number - pressure when the heart is contracting (systole). the lower number - pressure when the heart is relaxing (diastole)
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why is normal blood pressure given within a range?
people vary
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when someone has a heart attack, what has built up in the arteries that supply the heart with oxygen?
fatty deposits
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what can increase the risk of heart disease?
poor diet, stress, smoking, misuse of drugs, genetic factors
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how do scientists know which factors increase the risks of diseases such as heart disease?
epidemiological studies, large scale genetic studies
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name four drugs that can increase your blood pressure and heart rate, increasing the risk of heart attack
ecstasy, cannabis, nicotine and alcohol
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what does homeostasis mean?
keeping a constant internal environment
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what process is when a change in the bodies system is reversed to maintain a constant internal environment?
negative feedback
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name three ways that water is gained
drinks, food and respiration
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name the four ways water is lost
sweating, breathing, faeces and urine
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where is the hormne ADH produced?
pituitary gland
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what happens to the ADH production and urine concentration if someone is dehydrated?
more ADH is released, water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream and less water is lost in urine (urine is more concentrated)
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what does alcohol do to the ADH production?
suppresses it, so more water is lost in urine meaning it can lead to dehydration
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what does ecstasy do to the ADH production?
increases it, so less water is lost in urine.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

name three microorganisms

Back

viruses, bacteria and fungi

Card 3

Front

name the three conditions needed for bacteria to multiply rapidly

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what does the word engulf mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how are microorganisms recognised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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