B2

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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 26-03-16 10:44
What symptoms are caused by cell damage or by toxins?
Fever or a rash
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What part of the body to microorganisms harm?
The bodies cells
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How do malaria, staphylococcus and e-coli affect the body?
Malaria-parasites invade the red blood cells and multiple inside them causing them to burst open. Staphylococcus- produces proteins that damage the material holding the cell together making it easier to invade. E-coli-produce toxins that poison cells
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What conditions do bacteria need to reproduce?
Warm, moist conditions where they can get a source of nutrients
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How do viruses reproduce in the body?
Use parts of other cells to make copies of themselves
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How do white blood cells work?
They detect the foreign microorganism in the body then they engulf the microbes and digest them. They are non-specific so they will attack anything in the body that is not meant to be there.
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What are antigens?
Substances that trigger immune responses (normally proteins on the surface of the microorganism
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What are antibodies?
Proteins that are specific to particular antigen on microorganisms
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How do antibodies work?
They latch onto invading microorganisms and will either mark it so white blood cells can engulf and digest it, bind to it and neutralise viruses or toxins or attach to bacterial and kill them directly
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What are memory cells?
White blood cells that stay around after an infection so they can reproduce quickly if the same antigen enters the body for a second time- stops you from getting ill again (immunity)
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What is immunisation?
Injecting dead or inactive microorganisms into you so your body produces antibodies to attack them so that memory cells are produced so if you get the infection you will not be harmed
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How can vaccinating lots of people stop epidemics?
As there will be fewer people to pass the disease on to those who aren't vaccinated
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Why are vaccines and drugs never completely safe?
As people react differently to them and get different side affects e.g. 1 in 4 children with the meningitis vaccination develop painful swelling where the injection was and 1 in 50 develop a fever
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Why do people react differently to drugs?
Genetic differences e.g. anaesthetics during an operation have to be used for different lengths of time as people are affected differently by it.
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What are antimicrobials used for?
Chemicals that can inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them without damaging your body cells
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What can't antibiotics kill?
Viruses e.g. flus and colds
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How can microorganisms evolve and become resistance to antimicrobials?
Microorganisms can have random mutations in their DNA so it can be less affected by a particular antimicrobial but this leads to more to produce so more will have the random mutation in their DNA
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Why should you always finish your antibiotics?
As it can increase the risk of antibiotic resistance battery emerging and there will still be some bacteria left- could be harmful to others as you can pass on your disease.
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How are new drugs developed?
Using human cells in a lab to see how they would react
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What process to drugs have to go through to make sure they are safe?
They are first tested on at least two different species of live mammal then they are tested on human volunteers
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What is the drug process on humans in clinical trials?
First tested on a healthy human volunteer so doctors can see the side affects, then tested on the person who has the illness where placebos can be used to see the difference between patients.
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What are the three different human trials?
Blind, double blind and open label
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What is a blind trial?
Where the patient doesn't know if they are being given a placebo or not but the doctor does- used as they might improve due to psychological reasons
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What is a double blind trial?
Where both the doctor and the patient do not know if they are being given a placebo or not - so doctors are not influence by what they know when monitoring a patient
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What is an open label trial?
Where both the patient and doctor are aware of the treatment being used- can't mask the treatments being tested e.g. one is a drug other is exercise
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What is blood circulated around the body in?
Blood vessels- oxygen and nutrients are carried to the cells, carbon dioxide and waste are taken away from the cells
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How is the heart a double pump?
The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and remove carbon dioxide and the left side pumps oxygenated blood around the body
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How is blood supplied to the heart?
Through two coronary arteries which branch from the base of the aorta
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Explain an artery.
Carry blood away from the heart to the body cells. Carry high pressure blood so the artery walls are thick, strong and elastic
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Explain a vein.
Carry blood back to the heart. Lower pressure blood than the arteries so the walls aren't as thick. Have a bigger lumen blood flows more easily. Have valves to keep blood flowing in the right direction.
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Explain a capillary.
Branches of arteries that are very small. Very close to every cell in the body to exchange substances. Permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out. Walls are only one cell thick- increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance
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What is your heart rate?
Number of times your heart beats in one minute- measured in BPM (beats per minute)
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How does the heart work?
When contracts blood is forced out of the heart which increases the pressure of your blood and when it relaxes your heart fills with blood and your blood pressure decreases
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In a blood pressure measurement what is the higher number and what is the lower number?
Higher-pressure when heart contracts. Lower- pressure when heart relaxes
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What is a normal resting heart beat for an adult?
Between 60 and 100 beats per minute
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How can the artery be damaged?
Fatty deposits can build up in damage areas which restrict blood flow and cause the blood pressure in arteries to decrease- may cause blood clot
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How can blood clots cause heart attacks?
If the coronary artery becomes completely blocked an area of the heart muscles will be cut off from from blood so it will receive no oxygen- can cause serious damage or death of heart muscle
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What factors can increase the risk of heart disease?
Poor diet, stress (increase blood pressure), smoking (CO reduces oxygen to blood and nicotine increases heart rate), misuse of illegal drugs (ecstasy and cannabis increase heart rate) and excessive alcohol drinking (increase blood pressure)
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How does a poor diet affect your heart?
Fatty deposits can form in arteries (high cholesterol) also a diet high in salt increases blood pressure
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How can you reduce the risk of heart disease?
Regular moderate exercise (burns fat and strengths heart muscle)
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What is epidemiology?
Study of patterns of diseases and the factors that affect them
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What s homeostasis?
Where your body balances the inputs with the outputs to maintain a constant internal environment
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What three main components maintain a steady condition within your body?
Receptor (detects change), processing centre(receives information and coordinates a response) and effectors (produces a response that counteracts the change)
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What is negative feedback?
When the level of something is too high or low negative feedback brings it back to normal
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How is water inputted and outputted?
Input- drinks, food and respiration. Output- sweating, breathing, in faeces and in urine
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How are kidneys useful to the body?
Filter small molecules from the blood such as water, sugar, salt and waste
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How does urine change?
External temperature- higher it is the more you sweat so the kidneys reabsorb more water back into the blood- small amount, concentrated. Exercise- Sweat- small amount, concentrated. Intake of fluids and salts- Concentrated or dilute
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How does the brain control the water content?
Instructs the pituitary gland to release ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) into the blood- less ADH if the water is too high and more if water is too low (kidneys reabsorb more or less water)
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How is ADH affected by drugs?
Ecstasy increases ADH so the kidneys reabsorb more water so smaller amounts of concentrated urine than normal are passed out of your body
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How is ADH affected by alcohol?
It suppresses ADH so you pass a larger amount of more dilute urine than normal. This causes you to pass out more water than normal which can cause dehydration
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What part of the body to microorganisms harm?

Back

The bodies cells

Card 3

Front

How do malaria, staphylococcus and e-coli affect the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What conditions do bacteria need to reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do viruses reproduce in the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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