B2 3.1 to B2 3.6

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  • Created by: ja7sa096
  • Created on: 24-04-16 11:26
What are proteins?
Molecules made up of long chain of amino acids
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What do proteins do?
Act as structural components for muscles and tissues, hormones, antibodies, catalysts
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What are catalysts?
Substance that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts, proteins
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Enzymes are ...... to one job.
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What is the active site made of?
Chains of amino acids which are folded to form unique shapes
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Why do enzymes have special shapes?
So they can catalyse reactions
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What are enzymes involved in?
Building large molecules from smaller ones, changing one molecule into another, breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
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How do enzymes work?
The substrate (reactant) of the reaction fits into the active site of the enzymes, lock and key theory, enzyme and substrate bind together, reaction takes place rapidly, products are released from surface of enzyme
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What factors affect enzyme reactions?
Temperature and pH
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What happens if the enzymes are not in the right temperature/pH?
They denature
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Where are your digestive enzymes made?
Specialised cells in glands and lining of the gut, work outside of the body cells
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What does carbohydrase do?
Digest carbohydrates
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What enzyme catalyses carbohydrase?
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Where is amylase produced?
Salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine
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What are carbohydrates broken down into?
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What does protease break down?
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What are proteins broken down into?
Amino acids
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Where is protease made?
Stomach, pancreas, small intestine
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What does lipase break down?
Lipids (fats)
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What are fats broken down into?
Fatty acids and glycerol
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Where is lipase made?
Pancreas and small intestine
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What happens to the food molecules that have been fully digested?
They leave small intestine, enter bloodstream, carried around body to cells that need them
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Why does the stomach contain hydrochloric acid?
Because protease in the stomach work best in acidic conditions, kills bacteria
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Why does the pancreas need alkaline conditions?
Because protease in the pancreas works best in alkaline conditions
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Why does the stomach produce a thick layer of mucus?
Lines stomach walls, protects them from being digested by the acid and the enzymes
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What is bile?
Alkaline liquid stored in the gall bladder
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Why is bile needed?
Neutralises the acid from the stomach, provides ideal conditions needed for enzymes in small intestine, emulsifies fats
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Why does the bile emulsify the fats?
Provides a bigger surface area for lipase enzymes to act on, helps lipase eork quicker
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Why are enzymes used in industry?
Lower production costs by lowering activation energy needed for reaction, lower temperatures and pressures, saves money
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How is protease used in industry?
Baby food
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How is carbohydrase used in industry?
Sports drinks
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How is lactase used in industry?
Milk, dairy foods
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How is isomerase used in industry?
Slimming foods (fructose syrup)
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How is lipase used in industry?
Biological detergents
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What does it mean if an enzyme is immobilised?
It is trapped inside a non-reactive material
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Why do we immobilise enzymes?
So we can reuse them to save money, as enzymes are expensive
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What are the advantages of using enzymes in industry?
Reaction is more efficient, saves money in production costs, reduce temperature and pressure needed, whole microbes can be used
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes in industry?
Pure enzymes are expensive to produce, pH must be controlled to suit enzyme involved, very sensitive to conditions they are in, enzymes denature if not in right conditions- cost money
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What are the advantages of using enzymes in biological detergents?
Break down biological stains like sweat, work at low temperatures so they use less electricity which is cheaper and environmentally friendly
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes in biological detergents?
Lower temperature washes are less good at killing pathogens but higher temperatures can denature the enzymes
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How are enzymes used in industry?
To diagnose, control and cure diseases
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What diseases can enzymes cure?
Reduces the amount of damage done to heart muscle after heart attack, treats a type of blood cancer in children
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do proteins do?


Act as structural components for muscles and tissues, hormones, antibodies, catalysts

Card 3


What are catalysts?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are enzymes?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Enzymes are ...... to one job.


Preview of the front of card 5
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