B2

What is a healthy organism?
An organism that is in a state of well-being and is functioning as it should be, physically, mentally and socially.
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What is a disease?
A condition that commonly damages cells of the host and impairs the normal structures or functioning of the organism.
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Name two causes of disease and ill health.
1. The organism may become infected by the pathogen. 2. There may be a mutation in the organisms genes. 3. The organism may be affected by environmental conditions.
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Name two causes of disease and ill health.
4. The organism has experienced trauma that has affected their health. 5. The organisms' lifestyle may affect their health.
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What is a communicable disease? Give an example.
A disease that can spread between organisms and is caused by infection. E.G. cold, flu, chicken pox, HIV, cholera.
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What is a non communicable disease and what are they caused by? Give an example of both.
A disease that cannot be passed from one organism to another. They are caused by genetic mutations, lifestyle and environmental factors. E.G. cancer, diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer's.
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What is a pathogen?
A disease causing organism.
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What is the incubation period?
The period between catching an infection and symptoms appearing.
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What is a vector? Give an example.
An organism that can carry a disease and transmit it from one person to another. E.G. a mosquito.
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What is a protist?
A eukaryotic organism that is not a plant, animal or fungi.
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What are communicable diseases?
Diseases caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protists and fungi.
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How can communicable diseases spread?
They can be spread through bodily fluids (blood - contaminated needles, breast milk, semen - unprotected sex), on surfaces, animal vectors, in soil, food (eating contaminated foods), and water (drinking or bathing in dirty water).
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Describe a physical example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
1. The respiratory tract - lined with mucus and cilia that traps particles that could contain pathogens and waft the mucus up to the back of throat where it can be swallowed. 2. The skin - acts as a barrier to pathogens.
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Describe a physical example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
3. Platelets in the blood clump together to stop you losing too much blood and help to prevent microorganisms from entering the blood. This is known as blood clotting.
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Describe a chemical example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
1. Eyes - produce (in tears) an enzyme called lysozyme, which breaks down bacteria on the surface of the eye. 2. Saliva - contains molecules which kill pathogens that enter the mouth 3. The stomach produces hydrochloric acid. This kills pathogens.
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Describe a microbial example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
When pathogens make it to the gut, they have to compete with the bacteria which naturally live in the gut (intestines), in order to survive.
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Describe physical plant defences.
Most plant leaves have a waxy cuticle which acts as a waterproof barrier - stops pathogens entering the plant. - helps prevent water collecting on the leaf too, reducing the risk of infection by pathogens that are transferred in water.
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Describe physical plant defences.
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls which form a physical barrier against pathogens that make it past the waxy cuticle.
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Describe chemical plant defence responses, including antimicrobial substances.
If a pathogen manages to cross their physical defences, they can detect it and respond by producing antimicrobial substances as a form of chemical defence.
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Describe a microbial example of a defense system of a plant.
Phytoalexins may be produced in response to infection by a pathogen - these are thought to disrupt the metabolism and cell structure of some species of fungi and bacteria.
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Explain how white blood cells attack pathogens.
1. WBCs come across a foreign antigen on a pathogen - receptors in the membrane bind to the antigen. The WBCs then start to produce antibodies which lock onto the antigens on the invading cells.
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Explain how white blood cells attack pathogens.
2. The WBCs that detect the pathogen then divide to produce more copies, so that more antibodies can be produced.
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Explain how white blood cells attack pathogens.
3. Antibodies - produced rapidly and carried around the body to lock on to all similar pathogens. They may disable the pathogen or 'tag' the pathogens (helps the phagocytes find them so they can engulf them).
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Explain memory cells.
White blood cells that stay around in the blood after the pathogen has been fought off. If a person is infected with the same pathogen again, the memory cells will trigger the rapid production of the antibodies needed to destroy it,
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Explain memory cells.
before the pathogen causes the disease - the person is naturally immune to that pathogen and won't get ill.
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How do white blood cells consume foreign cells?
Some white blood cells (phagocytes) have a flexible membrane and contain a lot of enzymes. This enables them to engulf (ingest) foreign cells and digest them. This is called phagocytosis.
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What are antitoxins? what do they do?
Some white blood cells also produce antitoxins which counteract these toxin produced by pathogens and so limit any damage done by the invading pathogens.
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How can the spread of communicable diseases in humans be prevented?
Being hygienic (e.g. washing hands regularly to remove pathogens), sterilising wounds in the skin (kills microorganisms near the wound, stopping them from entering the blood),
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How can the spread of communicable diseases in humans be prevented?
living in sanitary conditions (e.g. having access to clean drinking water), using contraception (prevents STIs).
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How can the spread of communicable diseases in humans and animals be reduced?
Isolating infected individuals (e.g. restricting travel), vaccination, destroying the infected animals (infected animals may pass on the disease to other individuals).
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Why is reducing or preventing the spread of communicable diseases in plants important?
Plant diseases can reduce food sources for many organisms and can damage habitats for other organisms in an eco system.
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What are the ways the spread of disease be controlled in plants?
1. Regulating movement of a plant material (infected plants don't come into contact with healthy plants) 2.destroying infected plants 3. only using sources of healthy seeds and plants 4. Crop rotation (changing the type of plants that are grown).
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What are the ways the spread of disease be controlled in plants?
5. Polyculture (growing different types of plants in a single area at the same time). 6. Chemical control ( e.g. fungicides). 7. Biological control (another organism is used to control a pest or pathogen).
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What are vaccinations?
Injecting dead, inactive or weakened pathogens into the body. These carry antigens that trigger an immune response - your WBCs produce antigens to attack them.
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What are vaccinations?
Some of these WBCs will remain in the blood as memory cells, so if live pathogens of the same type ever appear, the antibodies that help destroy them will be produced immediately.
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How can vaccinations prevent epidemics?
If a large percentage of the population is vaccinated, even the people who aren't vaccinated are unlikely to catch the disease because there are fewer people able to pass it on.
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Name a pro of vaccinations.
They have helped control lots of communicable diseases that were once common in the UK (e.g. polio, measles, whooping cough, rubella, mumps, tetanus etc). Smallpox no longer occurs at all, and polio infections have fallen by 99%.
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Name a con of vaccinations.
They don't always work, you can sometimes have a bad reaction to a vaccine, It can be expensive to make vaccines and carry out vaccination programmes.
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Describe ways in which diseases, including plant diseases, can be detected and identified, in the lab and in the field.
Counting the number of cells in a sample, viewing a sample using a microscope, growing the sample in a culture, testing microorganisms found in the sample with antimicrobial compounds, isolation and reinfection (in plants).
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Describe how monoclonal antibodies are produced.
A mouse is injected with a specific antigen. The mouses immune system responds. Specific white blood cells (B lymphocytes) produce antibodies for that antigen.
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Describe how monoclonal antibodies are produced.
lymphocytes are extracted from the mouse and fused with tumour cells. These cells (hybriodoma) are screened to ensure they're producing the correct antibody. They copy themselves.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies to detect a disease?
Using a diagnostic stick containing monoclonal antibodies (labelled with dye) specific to the antigens on the surface. A blood sample and the antibodies move along the length of the stick towards a test *****.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies to detect a disease?
If the pathogen is present, then the antibodies will bind to the pathogens antigens and the test ***** will change colour.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer?
1. Monoclonal antibodies can be injected into a patients bloodstream. 2. The antibodies will then bind to the tumour markers on cancer cells in the patients body.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer?
3. For some types of monoclonal antibody, this will result in the cancer cells being labelled, causing a normal immune response to the cells - the patient's white blood cells will recognise the cancer cells as foreign and destroy them.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies in targetted drugs to treat cancer?
1. An anti-cancer drug is attached to monoclonal antibodies. This might be a radioactive or a toxic substance which stops cancer cells growing and dividing.
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How can you use monoclonal antibodies in targetted drugs to treat cancer?
2. The antibodies are injected into the patient's bloodstream and bind to the tumour markers on the cancer cells. 3. The drug kills the cancer cells but doesn't kill any normal body cells near the tumour.
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What factors can increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
A person's lifestyle (e.g. how much exercise they do), their environment (e.g. a person's work may mean they are more exposed to certain pollutants in the air, which could increase the risk of getting lung cancer) or a person's genes.
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How can exercise increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
1. Exercise increases the amount of energy used by the body and decreases the amount of stored body fat. 2. It builds muscle, (boosts metabolic rate).
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How can exercise increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
3. Those who exercise more regularly are less likely to suffer from health problems such as obesity and CVD (lack of exercise increases the risk of CVD because it increases blood pressure).
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How can diet increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
1. Eating too much can lead to obesity (linked to type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, CVD, some cancers). 2. Too much saturated fat in your diet can increases your LDL cholesterol (bad) - causes fatty deposits to form on the inside wall of arteries
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How can diet increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
leads to coronary heart disease. 3. Malnutrition can lead to fatigue and poor resistance to infection. Deficiency diseases (caused by lack of certain vitamins or minerals). 4. Eating a balanced diet can decrease the risk.
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How can alcohol increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
1. Alcohol is poisonous. It's broken down by enzymes in the liver and some of the products are toxic. Too many of these toxic products can cause the death of liver cells, forming scar tissue that stops blood reaching the liver (cirrhosis).
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How can alcohol increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
2. Drinking too much alcohol increases blood pressure which can lead to CVS. 3. Many cancers have been linked to alcohol consumptions because the toxic products damage DNA and cause cells to divide faster than normal.
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How can smoking increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
1. Nicotine - makes smoking addictive - increases heart rate (heart contracting more often increasing blood pressure, increasing the risk of CVD).
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How can smoking increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
2. CO2 - reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood - heart attacks.
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How can smoking increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
3. Lung, throat, mouth and oesophageal cancer - tar is full of toxic chemicals, some of which are cause cancer. Carcinogens make mutations in the DNA more likely - uncontrolled cell division.
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How can smoking increase or decrease the risk of developing non-communicable human diseases?
4. Lung diseases, ( e.g. chronic bronchitis) - cigarette smoke causes inflammation of the lining of the bronchi and bronchioles - which can result in permanent damage.
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Explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at a global level.
Non-communicable diseases are more common in developed countries. Lack of exercise & higher alcohol consumption are associated with higher income; smoking-related deaths are more common in poorer countries.
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Explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at a global level.
Obesity is associated with higher incomes as people are able to afford lots of high-fat food. However, lower incomes too, as people are eating cheaper, less healthy food.
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Explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at a national level.
Non-communicable diseases are the biggest cause of death in the UK. People from deprived areas are more likely to smoke, have a poor diet, and not take part in physical activity.
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Explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at a national level.
The incidence of heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancers is higher in those areas. Also they are more likely to suffer from alcohol-related disorders.
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Explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at a local level.
Individual lifestyle choices affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases at the local level - if you choose to smoke, drink, not take part in exercise or have a poor diet, then the risk increases.
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Explain the use of medicines in the treatment of disease.
1. Drugs which kill/disable pathogens can be used to treat or control diseases (e.g. antibiotics). Many are produced naturally by microorganisms. Pharmaceutical companies can grow them on a large scale in a lab and extract the antibiotics.
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Explain the use of medicines in the treatment of disease.
2. They can sometimes be used to prevent bacterial infections from happening. E.g. people in close contact with a person with a disease can be given antibiotics which stops the spread of disease.
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Explain the use of medicines to relieve pain.
Painkillers (e.g. aspirin) are drugs that relieve pain. Other drugs do a similar kind of thing - reduce how severe the symptoms are or how long the symptoms last for, without tackling the underlying cause.
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with a healthy lifestyle?
Making changes to your lifestyle, (eating a healthy diet (low in saturated fat), reducing stress, exercising regularly, quitting smoking) can reduce the risk of developing CVD initially. These can also help other forms of treatment be more effective.
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with medicine?
1. Statins can reduce the amount of cholesterol present in the bloodstream, which can slow down the rate of fatty deposits forming. But they can cause serious side effects, e.g. kidney failure.
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with medicine?
2. Anticoagulants are drugs which make blood clots less likely to form. However, this can cause excessive bleeding if the person is hurt.
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with medicine?
3. Antihypertensives reduce blood pressure which reduces the risk of atheromas and blood clots forming. Side effects include headaches or fainting
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with surgical procedures?
1. Stents (tubes that are inserted inside arteries) keep them open, so blood can pass through to the cardiac muscle, lowering the risk of heart attack. Over time, the artery can narrow again as stents can irritate the artery and make scar tissue grow
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with surgical procedures?
2. If part of a blood vessel is blocked, a piece of healthy vessel taken from elsewhere can be used to bypass the blocked section (coronary bypass surgery).
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated with surgical procedures?
3. The whole heart can be replaced with a donor heart but the new heart does not always start pumping properly. The new heart can also be rejected because the body's immune system recognises it as 'foreign'.
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Describe preclinical testing.
1. Drugs are first tested on cultured human cells. However, you can't use human cells to test drugs that affect whole or multiple body systems, e.g. a drug for blood pressure must be tested on a whole animal.
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Describe preclinical testing.
2. The drug is tested on live animals. Both of these steps are used to test that the drug is effective (produces the effect you're looking for) and to find out how safe it is.
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Describe clinical testing.
1. If the drug is tested on human volunteers in a clinical trial. 2. The drug is tested on healthy volunteers to make sure that it is safe, i.e. that it doesn't have any harmful side effects when the body is working normally.
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Describe clinical testing.
3. Then, successful drugs can be tested on people that have the disease, to test its effectiveness and safety.
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What is the placebo effect?
Patients are randomly put into two groups. One is given the new drug, the other is given a placebo. This is to allow for the placebo effect (the patient expects the treatment to work and so feels better, even though the treatment isn't doing anything
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What is a blind trial?
The patient in the study doesn't know whether they're getting the drug or the placebo.
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What is a double blind trial?
Neither the patient nor the doctors knows until all the results have been gathered. This is so the doctors monitoring the patients and analysing the results aren't subconsciously influenced by their knowledge.
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What is an open-label trial?
The doctor and the patient are aware of who is receiving the drug. These might be used when comparing the effectiveness of two very similar drugs.
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Describe a physical example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
1. The respiratory tract - lined with mucus and cilia that traps particles that could contain pathogens and waft the mucus up to the back of throat where it can be swallowed. 2. The skin - acts as a barrier to pathogens.
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Describe a physical example of a non-specific defense of the human body.
3. Platelets in the blood clump together to stop you losing too much blood and help to prevent microorganisms from entering the blood. This is known as blood clotting.
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What are the ways the spread of disease be controlled in plants?
1. Regulating movement of a plant material (infected plants don't come into contact with healthy plants) 2.destroying infected plants 3. only using sources of healthy seeds and plants 4. Crop rotation (changing the type of plants that are grown).
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What are the ways the spread of disease be controlled in plants?
5. Polyculture (growing different types of plants in a single area at the same time). 6. Chemical control ( e.g. fungicides). 7. Biological control (another organism is used to control a pest or pathogen).
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Card 2

Front

What is a disease?

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A condition that commonly damages cells of the host and impairs the normal structures or functioning of the organism.

Card 3

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Name two causes of disease and ill health.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Name two causes of disease and ill health.

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Card 5

Front

What is a communicable disease? Give an example.

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