Biology 1b Continued

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24. How does corrective laser eye surgery work?
Cutting a flap in the cornea, folding it back and using a laser to reshape the cornea.
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25. What is binocular vision? Explain key parts of it.
Eyes postitioned close together,front of head. Each eye has a limited field of view. Judge speed and distance accurately. Found on humans and predators.
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26. How does the brain use binocular vision?
Uses binocular vision to judge distances by comparing images from each eye. The similar the images the further away the object.
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27. What is monocular vision?
Eyes are postioned on either side of the head. Each eye has a wide field of view - can see behind and infront. Little overlap in the fields of view whihc makes it difficult judge distances/speed. Found on prey.
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28. What are drugs?
Chemicals that affect your mind or body.
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29. What are stimulants? Give an example.
Increase brain activity which leads to heightened perception and a feeling of alertness. Eg. Caffeine, nicotine and ecstasy.
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30. What are depressants? Give an example.
Decrease brain activity which makes you feel tired and slows down your reactions. Lead to feeling of lethargy and forgetfulness. Eg. Alcohol, solvents, treanquillisers like temazepam.
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31. What are painkillers or anaesthetics? Give an example.
Reduce pain by blocking nerve impulses. Eg. Aspirin, paracetamol and heroin.
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32. What are performance-enhancing drugs? Give an example.
Increase muscle development, which is why they're sometimes abused by sports people. Eg. Anabolic steriods.
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33. Explain in more detail about how stimulants affect the nervous system.
Stimulants and depressants act on the synapses of the nervous system. Stimulants cause more neuro-transmitters to cross the synapse. This speeds up the nervous impulses.
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34. Explain in more detail about how depressants affect the nervous system.
Depressants bind with the receptor molecules in the next neurone, blocking the transmission of the impulse. This slows everything down.
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35. Give examples of class A,B and C drugs.
A) heroin/cocaine. B) amphetamines like speed. C) tranquillisers and anabolic steroids.
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36. What is drug addition?
A state of psychological or physical need for a drug.
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37. What happens when an addicts body becomes more used to a drug.
It develops a tolerance to it. Ie. The addict needs higher doses of the drug to get the same effects.
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38. Give examples of withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological problems like cravings. Physical problems like nausea, shaking and sweating.
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39. What is rehabilitation?
The process by which an addict learns to live without the drug. This takes a long time because their body and mind both have to adapt.
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40. What are the short term effects of alcohol?
Lack of balance and muscle control, blurred vision and slurred speech, poor judgement and drowsiness and vasodilation.
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41. What are the long term effects of alcohol?
liver damage, due to the liver working very hard to remove the toxic alcohol from the body. Brain damage due to dehydration. The liver contains enzymes to break down alcohol, but products of breakdown are toxic. Cirrhosis of the liver can also happen
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42. What is the legal limit of alchol for driving? Why?
100 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood. Alcohol slows down reaction times, increasing chance of accidents.
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43. What diseases can smoking lead to? What other damage can be done?
Cancer of the mouth, throat, oesophagus and lungs, heart disease, emphysema and bronchitis. Damages the cilia which line the airways. preventing cilia to remove mucus , tar and dirt from the lungs leading to smokers cough.
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44. What do cigarettes contain and produce? Also explain carbon monoxide.
Tar, nicotine (very addictive), produce carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide dangerous as blood picks it up instead of oxygen. Blood carrying less oxygen, breathless and heart disease.
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45. What does tar contain and what does it do? Also what do particulates do?
chemicals which are irritants and carciongens (cancer-causing chemicals). Particulates in cigarette smoke accumulate in living tissue.
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46. What is homeostatis?
Your body's automatic system to maintain a constant internal environment to ensure cells function efficiently.
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47. What does your body do to keep the body at a steady internal environment?
Balance inputs and outputs.
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48. What temperature do enzymes work best at?
37 degrees centigrade.
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49. What happens to blood vessels if the body becomes to hot, what is this called? What other things happen to the bodys temperature is too high?
Blood vessals dilate (widen) so heat can radiate into environment. Vasodilation. The body also sweats as heat energy is required to evaporate the sweat of the skin.
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50. What can happen if the body becomes to hot?
If too much water is lost through sweating, the body becomes dehydrated. Leading to heat stroke and even death.
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51. What happens to blood vessels if the body becomes to cold, what is this called? What else happens if the bodys temperature is too low?
Blood vessels constric and the blood flow near the surface is reduced. Vasoconstriction. Sweating stops and muscles make tiny contractions (shivers) which require energy/respiration to produce heat.
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52. What could happen to your body if it becomes too cold?
Hypothermia if body temperature below 35 degrees. Causes unconsciousness and sometimes death.
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53. How can you take someones temperature?
Readings taken from places like mouth, ear, ****, skin surface or finger. Digital recording and thermal imaging used in hospitals. At home heat sensitive strips placed on foreheads are alternative to clinical thermometers (under tongue).
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54. What is the blood temperature monitored by? What is negative feedback?
The brain. Automatic reversal of a change in condition. Occurs frequenctly in homeostatis. Temperature too high - brain turns on mechanisms to lower it. And vice versa.
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55. What are hormones?
Chemical messages released by glands directly into the bloodstream. Travel around the body to their target organs.
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56. How fast do hormones travel compared to nerve impulses?
They travel much slower, at the speed of blood.
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57. What are the main glands which produce hormones in the body?
Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Pancreas, Ovary, Testes, Adrenal gland.
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58. What is insulin and where is it released? Where does it travel?
The hormone insulin is released by the pancreas to control blood sugar levels. It travels in blood.
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59. Explain type I diabetes. What, How, Effects and Responces.
Caused by pancreas failing to produce insulin. Lead to blood sugar levels rising fatally high and resulting in coma and death. Inject insulin into the blood.
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60. Explain type II diabetes. What, How, Effects and Responces.
Affects cells that respond to insulin. Become desensitised to insulin and do not respond. Injecting insulin no use - controlled by diet.
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61. What does insulin do?
Regulate a person's blood sugar levels by converting excess glucose into glycogen in the liver.
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62. What must a person do before injecting insulin?
Tests amount of sugar in the blood via a ***** test. If before meals: Have food containing alot of sugar - bigger dose. If planning to exercise - smaller dose (needs energy).
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63. What do plant hormones control?
Growth of shoots and roots. Flowering and ripening of fruits.
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64. What are auxins? What do they do?
Move through the plant in solution. Affect the plant's growth by responding to gravity (geotropism) and light (phototropism).
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65. Shoots grow.......?
Towards light (positve phototropism) and against gravity (negative geotropism).
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66. Roots grow......?
Away from light (negative phototropism) and downwards in the direction of gravity (positive geotropism) to absorb water and provide support for the plant.
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67. Explain auxin in detail. Where it is made, distribution depends on...., what happens when light shines on a shoot.
Made in tip, Distribution depends on light and can be unequal. If light shines on a shoot then hormones in direct sunlight destroyed, hormones shaded area continue to function (causing them to elongate). Shoot bends towards light.
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68. Give some examples of plant hormones used in agriculture.
Rooting powder - encourages growth of roots in stem cuttings (many plants from one plant) Fruit-ripening hormone - causes fruit to ripen. Ripening accelerated/delayed if travelling or storage. Control of dormancy - speed up/down bud/plant growth.
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69. Explain selective weedkillers.
Hormones in weed killer disrupt growth patterns of target plants without harming other plants. Broad leaved weeds have a larger surface area than the crop plants with narrow leaves so they recieve a higher dose of hormones and die.
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70.What are differences between individuals of the same species?
Variations.
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71. Why do genetic variations occur?
Individuals inheit different combinations of gene. Caused by mutations (changes to the gene), differences between gametes (egg/sperm) and random nature of fertilisation.
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72. Give some variations caused by genes.
Nose shape and eye colour.
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73. Give some variations caused by the environment.
Language and scars.
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74. Give some variations that caused by both genes and the environment.
Body mass, intelligence and height.
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75. Where are all the instructions to make an individual held?
On chromosomes.
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76. What is a section of chromosome called that codes for a inherited charactoristic?
A gene.
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77. How many pairs of chromosomes does one person have? How many do gametes have?
23. Gametes- half.
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78. What are alleles?
Different versions of genes.
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79. What are dominant and recessive alleles?
Dominant - Control development of a charactoristic even if one chromosome is present in a pair. Recessive - control if a dominant isnt present.
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80. What is homozygous? What is hetrozygous?
Both chromosome in a pair contain the same allele of the gene. Hetro - different alleles for that gene.
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81. What is monhybrid inheritance?
A charactoristic is determined by just one pair of alleles.
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82. What are genetic diagrams used to show?
All combinations of alleles and outcomes for a particular gene. Capital letters for dominant alleles, lower case for recessive.
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83. What is a genotype and phenotype?
Letters to decribe the genetic makeup are called the genotype. Charatoristic expressed is the phenotype.
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84. What are the sex chromosomes for male and female?
XX female XY male.
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85. What is the chances of having a boy or a girl offspring?
Equal.
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86. What are some diseases caused by? Give some examples.
A faulty gene (usually recessive) which means they can be inherited. Red-green colour blindness, sickle cell amaemia and cystic fibrosis.
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87. As most inherited diseases are caused by a recessive gene, is it true that you can get the disease if only one parent carries the disease?
No, the offspring can only have the disease is both genes that they inherit (one from mum one from dad) are faulty.
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88. If both parents are healthy, does this mean the child cannot get the inherited disease?
No, because the parents both have dominant genes that protect them. They could both carry one recessive gene each.
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Eyes postitioned close together,front of head. Each eye has a limited field of view. Judge speed and distance accurately. Found on humans and predators.

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26. How does the brain use binocular vision?

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27. What is monocular vision?

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