Biology 1a

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1. What does the circulatory system carry?
Oxygen and Glucose.
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2 How is energy made?
Aerobic Respiration
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3. How does your heart pump blood around the body?
Relaxes to fill with blood and contract to squeeze blood into the arteries and around the body.
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4. What is a surge of blood called?
Heart beat/pulse
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5. What is blood pressure?
A measure of the force of the blood per unit area as it flows through the arteries.
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6. What is blood pressure measured in?
mm Hg (millimetres of mercury)
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7. What is the systolic blood pressure?
Its the first number and is the pressure in the arteries when your heart contracts. Always the highest number.
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8. What is the diastolic blood pressure?
The second number. When your heart relaxes. Always the lowest number.
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9. What is the normal blood pressure?
120/80 mm Hg.
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10. What are the factors that lead to high blood pressure?
Excess weight, high stress levels, excess alcohol, bad diet.
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11. How can a diet which is high in saturated fat, sugar or salt increase blood pressure?
Build up of cholesterol in the arteries forming plaques. This plaque builds up in the lumen, restricting the blood flow.
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12. What does blocked blood flow increase?
The risk of heart attack.
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13. How does smoking increase the risk of high blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry. So pressure increases in order to compensate. Nicotine increases the heart rate.
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14. What does carbon monoxide do?
Takes place of the haemoglobin.
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15. What can high blood pressure do in the long term?
Blood vessals can weaken and burst. Brain damage or stoke, kidney damage also.
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16. What can low blood pressure do to your body?
Some parts of the body are deprived of glucose and oxygen. Lead to dizziness, fainting and cold hands and feet. Pressure to drop in the kidneys, kidney failure.
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17. What are the causes of heart disease?
High blood pressure, smoking, too much salt and high fat diets.
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18. What does being healthy mean?
Free from infection.
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19 .What does being fit mean?
How much physical activity your're capable of doing and how quickly you recover afterwards.
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20. What are the different types of fitness?
Strength, stamina, flexibility, agility and speed.
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21. What is cardiovascular efficiency?
How well your heart copes with aerobic exercise and how quickly it recovers afterwards.
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22. A balanced diet must contain:
carbohyrates and fats for energy. Protein for growth and repar
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23. What are carbohdrates made out of?
Simple sugars such as glucose.
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24. What are fats made from?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
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25. What are proteins made from?
Amino acids.
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26. Where are carbohydrates, fats and proteins stored?
Carbohydrates: Liver as glycogen can be converted to fats. Fats: Under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue. Proteins are not stored.
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27. What food substances do you need in your body to keep you healthy?
Minerals (Iron to make haemoglobin in the red blood cells) Vitamins to prevent scurvy . Fibre to prevent constipation and to maintain healthy bowels. Water to prevent dehydrationand to help remove waste.
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28. Why might you alter you diet?
Beliefs (animal welfare), religious beliefs, medical issues, age, sex and activity.
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29. What does the amount of energy you need depend on?
Age, sex and activity levels.
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30. How might you maintain a healthy body mass?
Balence the amount of energy you consume with the amount of energy you use in a day.
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31. How can you measure BMI (Body Mass Index)?
Mass (kg)/ height squared (m2)
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32. What are the catorgries of BMI?
30 obese.
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33. What can obesity lead to?
Arthritis, heart disease, type II diabetes and breast cancer.
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34. What are essential and non-essential amino acids?
Essential amino acids must be taken in buy eating food. Non-essential amino acids can be made in the body.
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35. What are proteins from animals called?
First class proteins. Contain all essential amino acids that cannot be made by the body. Plant proteins are second class proteins.
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36. What happens to children in developing countries when they have a lack of protein?
Kwashiorkor. Disease is common in developing countries due to overpopulation and limited investment in agriculture.
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37. How can you calculate you estimated average daily requirement for protein (EAR)?
EAR = 0.6 x Body mass (kg)
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38. When can you EAR differ?
Age, pregant and lacation (whether a women is producing milk)
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39. What can lead to a poor diet?
low self-esteem, poor self-image and a desire for perfection.
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40. Why can a poor diet be damaging?
Body doesnt get a balance of energy and nutrients needed to function properly.
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41. Give an example of an eating disorder.
Anorexia nervosa or bulimia.
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42. What are the causes of non-infectious diseases?
Poor diet, Organ malfunction. genetic inheritance, cells mutating and becoming cancerous. No pathogens involved.
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43. What happens to cells in cancer?
They grow out of control and form humours.
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44. What can reduce the chance of getting cancer?
Dont smoke (chemicals = lung cancer and throat cancer), Dont drink excess alcohol (cancer of liver, gut and mouth), avoid sunburn (skin cells get damaged), eat a healthy diet (high in fibre can reduce risk of bowel cancer)
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45. Name and explain two types of tumours
Benign - tumour that grows in one place. Malignant - tumour that splits and grows in other parts of the body.
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46. What are infectious diseases caused by?
Pathogens, microorganisms that attack the body.
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47. Name the four exampls of infectious diseases.
Fungi, viruses, bacterial and protozoa.
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48. Explain how malaria is spread.
Mosquito sucks blood from human. If malaria parasites in blood they mate and move to the mosquitos salivar glands. Mosquito bites another person. Parasites to liver, mature. Move to blood and go in red blood cells. Blood cells burst.
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49. What can protect against malaria?
Mosquitonets, insect repellents, insecticide.
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50. What are your body functions against pathogens?
Skin acts as barrier to pathogens. The blood clots in wounds to prevent microorganism from entering bloodstream. The resipratory system is lined with cells the produce sticky, liquid mucus that forms a mucus trap microorganisms. Stomach HCl acid.
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51. What fight pathogens?
White blood cells.
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52. What are the symptoms of disease caused by pathogens?
Producing toxins before white blood cells reach them.
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53. What do the white blood cells do? Two types.
1st Type: Engulfing and digesting pathogens. 2nd Type: Making antibodies to attack pathogens. Recognise markers (anitgens) on pathogen and make antibodies which lock onto the markers.
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54. What is natural (active) immunity?
Your body remembers previous attacks from the same pathogen. Quicker to make the right antibodies
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55. What does immunisation provide?
Natural/active immunity against disease.
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56. How do immunisations work/ what happens?
1. Injected with dead/weakened pathogens. 2. Trigger antibodies even though harmless. 3. Memory cells produced. Anitbodies produced quickly in the future.
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57. What are the advantages of immunisation?
Protects against diseases. Disease eventually dies out if everyone is vacinated.
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58. What are the risks of immunisation?
An individual could have a bad reaction to the vaccine. No vaccine is 100% safe, but benefits outway risks.
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59. When does passive immunity occur?
Anitbodies put into someones body rather than body making them itself. Quick responce needed.
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60. Give an example of when passive immuinity occurs.
Pathogens/toxins in snakes venom act very fast and the person needs quick responce. Must be injected with antibodies. But they wont have long term protection as the body didnt make them itself.
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61. What can diseases be treated by?
Antibiotics only if they are bacterial or fungal.
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62. What can viruses be treated by?
Antiviral drugs
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63. What can happen if doctors overprescribe antibiotics?
All the bacteria in a population are killed off except the resistant ones, which then spread. Antibiotic becomes useless.
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64. Give an exaple of a resistant bacteria.
MRSA. Dangerous microorganism that media has called a superbug.
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65. Why do drugs need to be tested?
To make sure that they are safe and effective for the public.
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66. How can a drug be tested?
Computer models - Predict how it will effect cells, based on known information. Animals - to see how the drug can affect living tissue. Human tissue - grown in lab, see how affects human cells.
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67. What are problems with testing on animals or human tissue?
Many people think it is animal cruelty. Some people think that humna tissue being grown in this way is wrong because it is unnatural.
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68. What happens after first testing?
The drugs are tested on healthy volunteers and volunteers who have the disease. Some are iven the new drug and other given a placebo (inactive pill). Effects of both of these can be compared.
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69. What is a blind trial?
The volunteers do not know if they have been given the new drug or the placebo. This eliminates psychological factors. Fair comparison.
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70. What is a blind trial?
Neither the volunteers nor the doctors will know which pill has been given. Thsi eliminates bias from the test because the doctors cannot influences the volunteers responces.
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