B1 You and Your Genes

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  • Created by: karls314
  • Created on: 08-05-14 19:06
Where is your genetic material found and how is it arranged?
The nucleus of cells contains your genetic material which is arranged into 23 pairs of chromosomes.
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What are genes?
A gene is a short length of a chromosome which is one very long molecule of coiled up DNA.
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What role to genes have within the body?
Genes are instructions which control the development of different characteristics, and how an organism functions.
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Name 2 types of proteins with an example.
1) Structural- collagen, found in tendons, bones and cartilage. 2)Functional- amalyse, a digestive enyme which breaks down starch to maltose.
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How can different characteristics be determined?
1) By genes alone- some characteristics are decided by one gene or several 2) The environment- how and where you live 3)Both- e.g weight
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Define genotype and phenotype.
Geneotype is all of the genes an organism has. The characteristics that an organism displays are called its phenotype.
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Different offspring from parents differ because..
..they inherit a different combination of alleles from their parents.
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How do our genes control our gender?
The sex-determing gene on the Y chromosome which males inherit triggers the development of testes and that in an absence of a Y chromosome, ovaries develop.
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Huntington's disease and cystic fibrosis...
... are both caused by faulty alleles of a single gene. Huntington's being caused by a dominant allele, cystic fibrosis by a recessive.
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What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Thick mucus in the air passages, gut and pancreas; breathing difficulty, chest infections and difficulty in digesting food.
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What are the symptoms of Huntington's disease?
The disease has a late onset (noticeable symptoms after 40), tremors, shaking, clumsiness, memory loss, mood changes and poor concentration.
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Describe why embryos may be genetically tested.
When embryos are produced using IVF, doctors can test for certain genetic disorders which is known as PGD (pre-implantation genetic diagnosis). The healthy embryos are implanted.
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Describe why adults and children may be genetically tested.
To check to see if they carry alleles for genetic disorders (adults may want to find out if their children are likely to inherit a particular genetic disorder). They may also be tested before certain drugs are prescribed to them (side-effects)
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Discuss issues concerning genetic testing for people.
1)Risk of miscarriage as a result of a cell sampling for the genetic test, 2) Using results that may not be accurate including false positives and negatives, 3) Whether or not to have children
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Discuss issues concerning genetic testing for people (2).
4)Whether or not a pregnancy should be terminated 5)Whether other family members should be informed.
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Discuss issues concerning genetic testing for society.
If the results become avaliable to others it may cause discrimination in areas of employement and insurance.
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What are clones and how do they occur naturally?
Clones are genetically identical organisms: Identical twins are clones (formed when a fertilised egg cell splits), bacteria, plants and some animals produce asexually to produce clones.
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Describe how clones of plants occur.
Some plants produce horizontal stems called runners that move our from the base of the plant and from new clones at their tips (e.g: strawberry plants). Other plants produce underground fleshy structures called bulbs which grow to form a clone(garlic
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Describe how clones of animals occur artifically.
The nucleus of an egg cell is removed and a nucleus from an adult donor cell is inserted in its place. The cell it stimulated to start dividing, and it genetically identical to the donor cell.
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What is a stem cell and why are they useful?
A stem cell is an unspecialised cell which has the ability to treat many illnesses, e.g: turned into heart muscle cells for people with heart disease.
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What are the differences between embyronic and adult stem cells.
Adult stem cells can specialise into many but not all types of cell unline embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells can be safely removed by extracting bone marrow where as embryos are destroyed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are genes?

Back

A gene is a short length of a chromosome which is one very long molecule of coiled up DNA.

Card 3

Front

What role to genes have within the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 2 types of proteins with an example.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can different characteristics be determined?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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