B1 Variation, Reproduction&New Technology

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How is genetic information passed from parents to offspring?
The nucleus of gamete cells contains the genetic material which is passed from parent to offspring.
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Suggest which humans could be described as 'natural clones'?
Identical twins are natural clones.
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Plant clones are genetically identical. Why do some clones look different?
Clones have the same genetic material but during development the organism may be changed due to environmental factors e.g. amount of light or nutrients.
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What is meant by a 'host' animal?
The host animal is the one in which a transplanted embryo develops.
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What is done to the fused cell to start off the process of cell division in adult cell cloning?
An electric shock is applied to the cell.
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Why are you similar to both your parents, but not identical to either of them?
Offspring inherit genes from both parents. Different combinations of genes lead to the appearance of different physical characteristics.
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In what ways are embryo transplants similar to what happens when identical twins form?
A single embryo is formed which then splits into two in identical twins. In cloning the embryo is split into several groups of cells.
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How are calf embryos formed?
After sexual reproduction, a single embryo is produced. Before the cells specialised the embryo is split into several groups of cells. Each group is transported into a different host mother. The calves born are all genetically identical.
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Why is embryo cloning sometimes used by cattle breeders rather than letting the cattle breed naturally?
Embryo cloning top class animals is quicker and cheaper. Cattle only have one or two young per year. If prize animals are bred together the farmer can get large numbers of the prize calves by cloning the 1 embryo. Embryos can be flown around world.
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Outline the process of genetic engineering.
A gene is cut from a chromosome of one organism using enzymes. The gene is then transferred to the chromosome of another organism. The gene then controls the development of a characteristic in the second organism.
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Give two advantages of genetic engineering.
Two of: Compounds such as insulin can be produced in large quantities. Antibiotics can be produced to treat disease. Genetic disorders can be treated. Herbicide and insect-resistant crops can be produced. Food which lasts longer can be produced.
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How are crops genetically modified?
A gene is transferred from another organism into the chromosome of the crop plant.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Suggest which humans could be described as 'natural clones'?

Back

Identical twins are natural clones.

Card 3

Front

Plant clones are genetically identical. Why do some clones look different?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by a 'host' animal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is done to the fused cell to start off the process of cell division in adult cell cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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