B1 Understanding Organisms

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  • Created by: Meeraxox
  • Created on: 08-05-15 23:45
What is the circulatory system?
Carries oxygen and glucose to all your body's cells so energy can be released through aerobic respiration.
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What are the main properties of arteries?
Blood away from the heart, thick muscular walls, small internal lumen, blood under high pressure.
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What are the main properties of veins?
Blood to the heart, thin walls, large internal lumen, blood under low pressure, have valves.
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What are the main properties of capillaries?
Microscopic, very low blood pressure, where gas exchange happens.
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What is the heart beat?
The surge when the heart contracts, putting blood under pressure and sent into arteries.
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What is blood pressure?
A measure of the force of blood per unit area as it flows into the arteries.(mmHG)
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What are the two numbers for blood pressure?
Systolic; pressure when heart contracts (maximum). Diastolic; when the heart relaxes.
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What are factors that lead to high blood pressure?
Excess weight, high stress levels, excess alcohol, a diet too high in saturated fats, sugar or salt and smoking.
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Consequences of high and low blood pressure?
Blood vessels can weaken and eventually burst.Blood doesn't circulate, leaving some cells deprived of oxygen/glucose leading to dizziness and fainting.
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What is thrombosis?
A blood clot within a blood vessel, causing a blockage.
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What is coronary artery disease?
When the coronary arteries become narrow because of the build up of cholesterol (plaques) within the walls.
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What does healthy mean?
Being free from infections.
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What does fit mean?
How much physical activity you're capable of doing and how quickly your body recovers.
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What are ways of measuring fitness?
Strength, speed, agility, flexibility, stamina.
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Name the main nutrients
Carbohydrates; source of energy, Proteins; growth and repair, Fat/lipids; source of energy, Water; prevent dehydration, Fiber; maintain healthy bowels.
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How are they stored?
Carbs ~ glucose ~ glycogen in liver// fats. Fats ~ fatty acids//glycerol under skin and around organs as adipose tissue. Proteins ~ amino acids.
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Name the main vitamins
Vitamin C; needed to heal wounds (citrus fruits/leafy greens) // scurvy. Vitamin D; needed to maintain healthy bones (eggs/oily fish) // rickets/ bone pain. Vitamin A; needed to maintain good vision (milk/dairy products) // night blindness.
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BMI
Mass (kg) / Height (m) ^2
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EAR (g)
Mass (kg) x 0.6
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Causes of non-infectious diseases?
Poor diet, organ malfunction, genetic inheritance, cells mutate abnormally.
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Define a vector
Carry microorganisms that cause disease while not suffering.
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Define a parisite
Live in hosts causing it harm.
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What is natural/active immunity?
White blood cells can produce antibodies quicker if you've already been infected.
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How does immunisation work?
Injected with a dead strain, antigens trigger antibody production, white blood cells remain in blood and memory cells are produces.
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What is passive immunity?
It is when the antibodies are put in the body; used for a quick response//lasts a short time.
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What is a double blind trial?
Neither volunteer or scientist knows whether the pill or placebo is given.
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What is the nervous system made up of?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System.
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How are neurones adapted?
Elongated axon; to make connections from one part to another. Insulating fatty sheath; to speed up nerve impulses and prevent cross over. Dendrites; branched ending to allow a single neurone to act on many muscle fibres.
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Name the types of neurones and their job
Sensory neurone; carries nerve impulses from receptors to the brain. Relay neurone; connections between the brain and spinal cord. Motor neurone; nerve impulses from brain to muscles.
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Voluntary Response
Stimulus-Receptor-Sensory neurone-CNS-Motor neurone-Effector-Response
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the main properties of arteries?

Back

Blood away from the heart, thick muscular walls, small internal lumen, blood under high pressure.

Card 3

Front

What are the main properties of veins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the main properties of capillaries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the heart beat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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